Table 2

Characteristics of included articles

Risk groupType of study and settingAuthor and year
(study period)
Sample sizeDiagnosis methodPrevalence per 100 000Incidence per 100 000Estimate from meta-analysis per 100Study included in review and reason
HCWsCross-sectional on community health workers in Western CapeKranzer et al, 2010
215Smear and culture5000Prevalence: 0.01
Incidence: 0.88
Prevalence: 1400 Grobler et al systematic review.*
Incidence: 1470 from Grobler et al systematic review.*
Cross-sectional among medical doctors in KZNNaidoo et al, 2013
40Sputum microscopy, culture and chest X-ray8000
Retrospective record review in eight public sector hospitals, KZNNaidoo and Jinabhai, 2006 (1999–2004)583Smear and culture7620
Retrospective cohort in three district hospitals, KZNTudor et al, 2014
1427Not specified9001958
Review of 31 studies conducted in SA (EVISAT)Nicol et al, 2014
Not specifiedSputum microscopy, culture14001958 in KZN
900 in WC
Systematic review of the epidemiology of TB in HCWs, South AfricaGrobler et al, 2016
3677Smears, cultures, microscopies, chest X-ray14001470
Cross sectional study of TB among HCWs in a hospital in the Western CapeAyuk, 2013
249Not specified397
MineworkersrsCluster randomised study in three gold mining companies in SAChurchyard et al, 2014
(not specified)
27 126Sputum microscopy, culture and chest X-ray2230Prevalence: 0.03
Incidence: 1.81
Prevalence: 1300 from EVISAT systematic review*
Incidence: 3000 from the EVISAT systematic review*
Review of 61 studies conducted in SA (EVISAT)Machingaidze et al, 2014
Not specifiedSputum microscopy, culture13003000
Prospective cohort study among SA gold minersHermans et al, 2016
18 520Symptoms screening and chest X-ray1900
Cross-sectional survey of a community-wide nurse delivered IPT intervention and TB screeningLewis et al, 201327 126Smear and culture2600
Retrospective cohort at four gold mines in Gauteng province using data from routine sourcesSonnenberg et al, 200523 874Sputum smear1390
InmatesReview of 18 studies conducted in SA (EVISAT)Mukinda and Mahomed, 2014Not specifiedVarious3900Prevalence: 0.04
Incidence: Not available
Prevalence: 3900 from the EVISAT systematic review*
Incidence: Since no incidence has been reported, the prevalence of 3900/100 000 was chosen†
Retrospective case-control at Mangaung correctional facilityNyasulu et al, 2015
1140Sputum microscopy8800
Cross-sectional survey of inmates In the largest facility in JohannesburgTelisinghe et al, 2014 (1966–2013)981Sputum microscopy and liquid culture7500
Programme evaluation within four facilities in GautengZishiri et al, 2014
Cross-sectional survey of inmates In the largest facility in JohannesburgHanifa et al,
2015 (2009–2010)
981Sputum microscopy and urine LAM3000
Informal settlementsCross-sectional survey of high TB and HIV burden community in the Western CapeWood et al, 2007
762Sputum smear and culture3300Prevalence: 0.09
Incidence: 7.44
Prevalence: 3150 from systematic review*
Incidence: 4500 from systematic review*
Review of 66 studies conducted in SA (EVISAT)Claassens et al, 2014 (1966–2013)12 777Various31504500
Cross-sectional study at a mobile clinic offering HIV testing in Cape TownKranzer et al, 2012
6394Sputum smear and culture4960
Routine chest screening in an ART service in a township in Cape TownDawson et al, 2010235X-ray and sputum culture2468
Cohort study of prospectively collected data on patients receiving ART in Cape TownGupta et al, 2012
1544Symptom screening and sputum smear and culture7440
Household ContactsRetrospective programme analysis of TB household contact tracing programme in North West ProvinceThind et al, 2012
552Sputum smear and culture3100Prevalence: 0.04
Incidence: 1.33
Prevalence: 4000 from the meta-analysis‡
Incidence: 1300 from van Schalkwyk et al
TB/HIV contact tracing study in North West ProvinceShapiro et al, 2012
3033Sputum smear and culture6075
A prospective cohort study on TB/HIV contact tracing study in North West Provincevan Schalkwyk et al, 2014 (2009–2010)2377Sputum smear and culture92001300
Pragmatic randomised trial in Matlosana District, North West provinceLebina et al, 2016
1017Culture, microscopy and Gene Xpert5408
Prospective study of index patients and household contacts in JohannesburgDeery et al, 2014
1197Sputum microscopy749
Children under 5 yearsProspective representative hospital surveillance data in Western Cape ProvinceHesseling et al, 2009 (2004–2006)294 712Culture700Prevalence: 0.10
Incidence: 1.51
Prevalence: 664 from EVISAT systematic review*
Incidence: 386 from EVISAT systematic review*
Review of 190 studies conducted in SA (EVISAT)Garcia-Prats et al, 2014 (1947–2013)Not specifiedVarious664386
Retrospective audit of neonates routinely screened for TB in a hospital setting in Cape TownBekker et al, 2012
70Isolation of TB from gastric aspirate11 400
Randomised control trial on children infected with HIV at two tertiary hospitals in Cape TownZar et al, 2007
(not specified)
277Chest X-ray and culture1200
Cohort analysis in children infected with HIV in Cape TownFrigati et al, 2011
298Chest X-ray and culture13 7001200
Cross-sectional study of children who are contacts of adult patients with MDR TBSeddon et al, 2013
228Chest X-ray and culture6578
ElderlyRetrospective cohort study of patients newly diagnosed with TB in SowetoKarstaedt and Bolhaar, 2014
42 004Microbiological confirmation262Prevalence: Not available
Incidence: 0.26
Case notification used as proxy for incidence (262)†
Migrants and refugeesRecord review at an FBO in JohannesburgMcCarthy et al, 2009
1297Not specified36 0003300Prevalence: 0.36
Incidence: 3.29
Prevalence: 36 000 from McCarthy et al
Incidence: 3300 from McCarthy et al
WomenCross-sectional study at a primary healthcare facility in Cape TownOni et al, 2015
10 234Not specified230Prevalence: 0.02
Incidence: Not available
Prevalence: 230 from cross-sectional study†
HIV-infectedProspective cohort of HIV positive HAART patients, KZNNaidoo et al, 2014
969Smear and culture17 8504500Prevalence: 0.25
Incidence: 6.07
Prevalence: 3000 from EVISAT systematic review*
Incidence: 4200 from EVISAT systematic review*
Review of 288 studies conducted in SA (EVISAT)Wiysonge et al, 2014 (1947–2013)Not specifiedNot specified30004200
Prospective cohort of patients referred to a clinic for ART initiationHanifa et al, 2012
381Sputum smear and culture177 00
Two clinical cohorts of HIV-positive patientsGolub et al, 2009
Observational community-based ART cohort in South AfricaLawn et al, 2009
770Sputum smear and culture7300
DiabetesCross-sectional study on adults attending a diabetes clinic, SowetoMajumder et al, 2016 (2014–2015)672Sputum smear1 240Prevalence: 0.01
Incidence: Not Available
Prevalence: 1240 from Majumder et al*
Pregnant womenProspective HIV-infected pregnant women in North WestHoffman et al, 2013
1451Sputum culture3 300Prevalence: 0.02
Incidence: 1.08
Prevalence: 2000 from the meta-analysis†
Incidence: 1080 from Odayar et al
A record review of pregnant women attending ANC in Northern CapePeters et al, 2015
308Sputum culture13 600
Cross-sectional integrating active TB case finding with ANC services in SowetoGounder et al, 2011
3963Sputum smear and Xpert688
Cohort of women visiting ANC in Cape TownOdayar et al, 2016
(not specified)
1507Symptom screening and bacteriologically1080
Prospective cohort of pregnant and postpartum women routinely on anti-TB treatment in Cape TownBekker et al, 2016
8471Symptom screening and bacteriologically874
SmokersProspective cohort of the Lung Health Survey from the electronic TB register, Cape TownNcayiyana 2010
3971Smear and culture871Prevalence: Not Available
Incidence: 0.87
Incidence: 817 from prospective Lung Health Survey†
Chronic alcohol usersProspective cohort of the Lung Health Survey from the electronic TB register, Cape TownNcayiyana 2010
3971Smear and culture949Prevalence: Not available
Incidence: 0.95
Incidence: 949 from prospective Lung Health Survey†
  • *Systematic reviews were considered representative.

  • †Only a single study was available to provide both estimates, and the available estimate was used as a proxy for the missing estimate.

  • ‡Estimates derived after a meta-analysis of varying estimates from several studies.

  • ANC, antenatal clinic; ART, antiretroviral therapy; EVISAT, Evidence to Inform South African Tuberculosis Policies; FBO, faith-based organisation; HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; HCW, healthcare worker; KZN, Kwa Zulu Natal; LAM, lipoarabinomannan; MDR, multidrug resistant; SA, South Africa; TB, tuberculosis.