Table 1

Changes in immediate and underlying determinants of child growth in Chhattisgarh between 2006 and 2016

(percentage points)
P value
Immediate determinants
 Maternal height151.77151.42−0.340.155
 Maternal weight43.8547.363.51<0.001
 Maternal low BMI (<18.5)45.1125.65−19.46<0.001
Underlying determinants
Household level
 Household size, n7.056.04−1.01<0.001
 Having health insurance2.5065.5363.03<0.001
 SES index (0–10), score*4.336.041.71<0.001
 Schedule caste14.1014.360.250.913
 Schedule tribe32.1132.200.100.981
 Other backward classes45.9345.77−0.160.966
 Hindu religion96.1295.25−0.870.501
 Muslim religion2.602.750.150.895
Hygiene and sanitation
 Having toilet in household15.1241.0425.92<0.001
 Improved latrine12.2232.0619.84<0.001
 Stool safe disposal10.1524.4914.33<0.001
 Improved drinking water77.7690.1512.39<0.001
 Having pumping water6.9814.977.99<0.001
Maternal level
 ≤9 years of schooling88.2776.10−12.17<0.001
 High school (10–12)6.8115.238.42<0.001
 College or higher4.928.673.750.005
 Married before 1867.0836.78−30.3<0.001
Village factors
 % households having toilet15.1241.0425.92<0.001
 % households having electricity73.8696.2322.37<0.001
 Boys, %52.4453.781.340.480
 Age, months28.5429.080.540.331
 Birth order2.982.29−0.69<0.001
  • Values are means or percentage.

  • *The socioeconomic status (SES) index was constructed using a principal component extracted from multiple variables including household ownership of 15 assets (car, motorbike, bicycle, television, computer, refrigerator, mobile phone, watch, fan, bed, mattress, table, chair, press cooker, sewing machine), livestock (cow, goat, chicken), house and land, as well as key housing characteristics (housing materials for floor, roof, wall and source of cooking). The first component derived from the component scores was scaled with the range 0–10 to obtain a measure of household wealth relative to other households, with a higher score indicating higher wealth.

  • ANC, antenatal care; BMI, body mass index; IFA, iron and folic acid; SES, social economic status.