Table 4

Changes in selected characteristics of the dimensions of poverty

200520102012
Poverty headcount ratio (%)
 Total49.448.739.9
 Rural55.156.144.6
 Urban28.423.824.8
Monthly per capita expenditure (in INR)
 All items519.2584.0626.9
 Food items324.6317.9207.3
 Non-staples273.6402.4447.6
 Non-food194.6266.1419.5
Change in wage/salary (in INR)*
 Regular wage/salaried employees†116.0202.3140.6
 Casual labourers‡ in public works61.061.871.9
 Casual labourers‡ in other work34.049.448.4
Change in jobs (%)
 Workers in agriculture7773
 Workers in industry1013
 Workers in services1314
 Workers who are self-employed5254
 Workers who are salaried810
 Workers on casual wage4036
  • Poverty headcount ratio (Reserve Bank of India); monthly per capita expenditure (calculated from the Household Consumption Survey of the National Sample Survey Organisation), change in wages and jobs (Calculated from the Employment and Unemployment Survey data of the National Sample Survey Organisation).

  • *Wage/salary recorded for person in a day.

  • †15–59 years of age who are casually engaged in other’s farm or non-farm enterprises (both household and non-household) and, in return, received wages according to the terms of the daily or periodic work contract.

  • ‡Persons who work in other’s farm or non-farm enterprises (both household and non-household) and received salary or wages on a regular basis (ie, not on the basis of daily or periodic renewal of work contract). This category includes not only persons getting time wage but also persons receiving piece wage or salary and paid apprentices, both full time and part time.