Table 3

Associations between selected factors and stunting among children 6–59 months in India

20062016Pooled
β95% CIβ95% CIβ95% CI
Immediate determinants
 Maternal low BMI (<18.5)0.03***0.02 to 0.050.05***0.04 to 0.050.04***0.04 to 0.05
 Vegetarian0.02−0.00 to 0.030.02***0.01 to 0.030.02***0.01 to 0.03
Health and nutrition services
 Health and nutrition services−0.02***−0.03 to −0.02−0.01***−0.01 to −0.01−0.01***−0.01 to −0.01
Underlying determinants
Household level
 Household size0−0.00 to 0.010.00***0.00 to 0.010.00***0.00 to 0.01
 SES quintile 10.12***0.09 to 0.160.10***0.08 to 0.110.10***0.09 to 0.12
 SES quintile 20.09***0.05 to 0.120.07***0.06 to 0.090.07***0.06 to 0.08
 SES quintile 30.07***0.04 to 0.100.05***0.03 to 0.060.05***0.04 to 0.06
 SES quintile 40.04*0.01 to 0.070.03***0.02 to 0.040.03***0.02 to 0.04
 Any household member has health insurance0−0.04 to 0.04−0.02***−0.02 to −0.01−0.01***−0.02 to −0.01
 Scheduled castes0.06***0.03 to 0.080.06***0.05 to 0.070.06***0.05 to 0.07
 Scheduled tribe0.04*0.01 to 0.070.04***0.02 to 0.050.04***0.02 to 0.05
 Other backward classes0.02*0.00 to 0.040.03***0.02 to 0.040.03***0.02 to 0.04
 Hindu religion−0.01−0.04 to 0.020.01−0.01 to 0.020−0.01 to 0.02
 Muslim religion0.01−0.02 to 0.050.04***0.02 to 0.060.04***0.02 to 0.05
Hygiene and sanitation
 Hygiene score−0.01**−0.02 to −0.00−0.02***−0.02 to −0.01−0.02***−0.02 to −0.01
Maternal level
 High school (10-12)−0.07***−0.10 to −0.05−0.05***−0.06 to −0.04−0.05***−0.06 to −0.05
 College or higher−0.10***−0.13 to −0.07−0.08***−0.09 to −0.07−0.08***−0.10 to −0.07
 Married before 180.01−0.01 to 0.020−0.00 to 0.010.01−0.00 to 0.01
Village factors
 % households having toilet−0.05*−0.08 to −0.01−0.04***−0.05 to −0.02−0.04***−0.05 to −0.02
 % households having electricity−0.02−0.05 to 0.01−0.05***−0.06 to −0.03−0.04***−0.06 to −0.03
 Rural−0.00−0.03 to 0.020.02**0.00 to 0.030.01*0.00 to 0.02
Child
 Birth order0.01*0.00 to 0.010.01***0.01 to 0.020.01***0.01 to 0.01
 Boy0.01−0.00 to 0.020.02***0.01 to 0.030.02***0.01 to 0.02
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • ANC, antenatal care; BMI, body mass index; IFA, iron and folic acid; SES, social economic status.