Table 4

Pooled proportions of herpes simplex virus type 1 virus isolation in clinically diagnosed genital ulcer disease and in clinically diagnosed genital herpes in Europe

PopulationOutcome measureSampleProportion of HSV-1 detectionPooled proportion of HSV-1 detectionHeterogeneity measures
Total NTotal
N
RangeMedianMean
(95% CI)
Q*
(p-value)
I²† (%)
(95% CI)
Prediction interval‡ (%)
Patients with clinically diagnosed GUD
 All patients with GUD48004.7–39.88.513.6 (4.1 to 27.1)58.1 (p<0.001)94.8 (89.0 to 97.4)0.0–85.5
Patients with clinically diagnosed genital herpes
 Sex
 Women6249336.0–89.643.542.0 (37.4 to 46.7)615.3 (p<0.001)90.2 (88.0 to 91.8)11.6–76.0
 Men5635780.0–75.026.624.1 (19.8 to 28.6)461.1 (p<0.001)88.1 (85.3 to 90.3)1.8–58.4
 Mixed4432 5704.6–81.845.035.8 (32.1 to 39.6)1778.5 (p<0.001)97.6 (97.2 to 97.9)14.7–60.3
Age group (years)
 <20315745.4–66.653.352.1 (39.1 to 64.9)3.2 (p=0.197)38.5 (0.0 to 80.8)0.0–100
 20–30 664327.3–54.938.539.9 (32.2 to 47.8)18.3 (p=0.003)72.7 (37.1 to 88.1)17.1–65.2
 30–40 10234.0–51.843.343.5 (27.4 to 60.3)§
 Mixed15140 1790.0–89.633.333.4 (30.9 to 39.6)3497.8 (p<0.001)95.7 (95.3 to 96.1)9.5–62.8
Genital herpes episode status
 First episode genital herpes13136631.0–75.049.049.3 (42.2 to 56.4)66.1 (p<0.001)81.8 (70.1 to 89.0)24.5–74.2
 Recurrent genital herpes118931.0–77.310.013.7 (5.8 to 24.1)152.7 (p<0.001)92.5 (90.2 to 95.6)0.060.5
 Unspecified status13838 8220.0–89.634.734.7 (32.3 to 37.1)2730.0 (p<0.001)95.0 (94.4 to 95.5)12.3–61.2
European subregion/country
 Northern Europe13138 8431.0–89.634.835.0 (32.5 to 37.6)2854.7 (p<0.001)95.4 (95.0 to 95.9)12.1–62.2
 Eastern Europe10034.9–63.149.049.3 (22.7 to 76.0)§
 Southern Europe82860.0–50.015.418.2 (7.3 to 23.1)39.1 (p<0.001)82.1 (66.0 to 90.6)0.0–68.9
 Western Europe54627.5–37.125.021.8 (11.7 to 33.8)33.2 (p<0.001)88.0 (74.4 to 94.3)0.0–70.2
 Israel460521.0–72.754.050.3 (20.8 to 79.7)142.4 (p<0.001)97.9 (96.5 to 98.7)0.0–100
 Mixed subregions127856.0–57.537.930.8 (19.5 to 43.4)140.4 (p<0.001)92.2 (88.2 to 94.8)0.0–79.5
Year or publication range
 <20007450720.0–81.834.833.4 (28.3 to 38.8)1099.7 (p<0.001)93.4 (92.3 to 94.3)1.7–78.1
 2000–20105387274.0–77.325.029.4 (24.6 to 34.5)1196.4 (p<0.001)95.7 (94.9 to 96.3)3.0–67.1
 >20103527 28218.7–89.642.846.0 (43.6 to 48.3)280.0 (p<0.001)87.9 (84.1 to 90.7)35.6–56.5
 All patients with genital herpes16241 0810.0–89.734.734.1 (31.7 to 36.5)3529.8 (p<0.001)95.4 (95.0 to 95.8)10.1–63.2
  • *The Cochran’s Q statistic is a measure assessing the existence of heterogeneity in pooled outcome measures (here, proportions of HSV-1 virus isolation).

  • †I2 is a measure assessing the magnitude of between study variation that is due to true differences in proportions of HSV-1 virus isolation across studies rather than sampling variation.

  • ‡Prediction interval is a measure quantifying the 95% interval of the distribution of true proportions of HSV-1 virus isolation around the estimated pooled mean.

  • §No meta-analysis was done as number of studies was <3. The two study samples were merged to yield one sample size, for which the 95% CI was calculated.

  • GUD, genital ulcer disease; HSV-1, herpes simplex virus type 1.