Table 1

ANC areas for measurement by monitoring domain based on ANC recommendations

Monitoring domainTopic for measurementLink to conceptual frameworkWHO ANC recommendation (2016a)Measure status
ExistsDoes not exist
InputsPolicy on task shifting for ANC (counselling and provision of selected interventions)Health systemE.5.1 and E.5.2X
Health worker density and distribution*Health systemE.6X
ProcessHealth units with at least one service provider trained to care for and refer sexual and gender-based violence survivors*Health systemB.1.3X
Pregnant women carrying their own case notesHealth systemE.1X
Facilitated participatory learning and action cycles with women’s groups to improve maternal and newborn health*Health systemE.4.1X
Intervention packages that include interpersonal communication and community mobilisation*Health systemE.4.2X
OutputsAvailability of balanced energy and protein dietary supplementationContent of careA.1.3X
On-site haemoglobin testing for anaemia*Content of careB.1.1X
On-site testing for asymptomatic bacteriuria*Content of careB.1.2X
Service-specific availability and readiness: midwife-led continuity of care*Health systemE.2X
Service-specific availability and readiness: group ANC†Health systemE.3X
ANC contacts (eight or more)Health systemE.7X
Timing of first ANC contactHealth systemE.7X
Counselling on diet and exercise in pregnancy*Content of careA.1.1X
OutcomesIron and folic acid supplementation*Content of careA.2.1 and A.2.2X
Calcium supplementation*Content of careA.3X
Vitamin A supplementation coverage*Content of careA.4X
Zinc supplementation†Content of careA.5X
Caffeine intake informationContent of careA.10X
Classification of hyperglycaemiaContent of careB.1.4X
Assessment for tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposureContent of careB.1.5X
Assessment for use of alcohol and other substancesContent of careB.1.6X
Pregnant women counselled and tested for HIV and know their resultsContent of careB.1.7X
Screening for syphilisContent of careB.1.7X
Testing for tuberculosis*Content of careB.1.8X
Daily foetal movement counting†Content of careB.2.1X
Symphysis–fundal height measurement*Content of careB.2.2X
Ultrasound scan before 24 weeksContent of careB.2.4X
Treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuriaContent of careC.1X
Prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections†Content of careC.2X
Prophylaxis with anti-D immunoglobulin in non-sensitised Rhesus-negative pregnant women†Content of careC.3X
Treatment for helminths*Content of careC.4X
Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria *Content of careC.6X
Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV infection*Content of careC.7X
Information and treatment for common physiological symptoms (eg, leg cramps, constipation and nausea)Experience of careD.1–D.6X
Counselling on birth preparedness and complication readinessContent of careGood clinical practiceX
Counselling on postpartum family planningContent of careGood clinical practiceX
Monitoring of foetal heart rateContent of careGood clinical practiceX
Monitoring of blood pressureContent of careGood clinical practiceX
ImpactNewborns protected at birth from tetanusContent of careC.5X
  • The monitoring domains for indicators that do not yet exist could change, depending on the types of indicators developed for specific recommendations.

  • *Measure is context-specific.

  • †Measure is for recommendations in the context of research.

  • ANC, antenatal care.