Table 1

Factors which facilitate exclusion in social insurance

A legally binding, long-term employment contractInformal workers are more likely to have a short-term contract or no contract at all.China,62 Vietnam63 64; Sao Tome and Principe,65 South Africa27; Thailand66
Contributions towards social insurance must be made consistently, over a minimum time period (eg, 3+months)Informal labour involves short term and sporadic work which generates an inconsistent level of income.Bosnia and Herzegovina67; Thailand,66 Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Morocco25;
Legally binding obligations only required from (or monitored in) formal sector industries.Informal workers are not offered a chance to participate in social insurance by their employers if there is no legal incentive to do so.India,68 Vietnam,63 China,62 Thailand,66 Colombia69