Table 1

Application of the framework in a situation of an urban slum with a COVID outbreak in a city reporting high number of COVID-19 cases

Domains to be consideredDefining the problemSuggested indicators
COVID epidemic-related factors
  • High burden of COVID-19 cases

  • Rapid progression of the epidemic

  • Vulnerability to COVID-19 mortality among adults with multiple comorbidities

  • Presence of good health infrastructure

  • Presence of civil society groups that can support response

  • Total number of cases of COVID-19

  • Total number of COVID-19 deaths

  • Doubling time of cases and deaths

  • Proportion of population over 60 years

  • Proportion of population with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, malnutrition

Health systems capacity to deal with the COVID epidemic and related health needs
  • Preparedness for COVID-related public health response

  • Providing care to those who are COVID-19 positive

  • Tests conducted per million population

  • Average number of contacts traced per lab proven case of COVID-19

  • Number of beds with provision of oxygen

  • Number of beds with ventilators

  • Number of doctors, nurses and technicians trained for intensive care (per thousand)

  • Number of healthcare workers provided PPE

  • Number of healthcare workers infected with COVID

Protecting the right to essential health services for non-COVID-related medical conditions
  • Disruption in routine public health functions

  • Interrupted access to routine medical services, especially to individuals from a known containment zone

  • Interrupted treatment of chronic medical conditions

  • Interruption of treatment of semiemergent conditions like dialysis

  • Standard performance indicators of selected services

  • Number of patients on ATT

  • Number of individuals on chronic NCD medications

  • Number of individuals requiring semiemergent treatments like dialysis, chemotherapy

  • Number of institutional deliveries expected

  • Anticipated medical and surgical emergencies

Social determinants of health
  • Inability to adhere to public health advice regarding control measures due to overcrowding and cramped living spaces, common toilets

  • Extremely vulnerable to economic effects of lockdowns due to precarious work

  • Average number of people in a single household

  • Sq feet living space per person

  • Number with access to water and soap

  • Unemployment rate

  • Percentage coverage with food and social security schemes

  • Number of homeless persons

  • Proportion of BPL households provided economic support and food

  • Proportion of ICDS and school enrolled children provided dry rations or food at home

  • Proportion of migrants housed in camps and receiving food and healthcare

Overarching equity considerationsMapping of population groups with special vulnerabilities and special needs
  • % coverage of persons with disability*

  • % coverage of homeless population*

  • % coverage of persons in institutions*

  • *With respect to all dimensions listed above.

  • ATT, Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment; BPL, Below Poverty Line; ICDS, Integrated Child Development Scheme; NCD, Non-Communicable Diseases; PPE, personal protective equipment .