Table 6

Predictors of violence against healthcare workers in basic health units and private clinics who experienced violence (n=628)

Any form of violencePhysical violenceVerbal violence
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
P valueAdjusted OR
(95% CI)
P valueAdjusted OR
(95% CI)
P value
Age
 18–29 (n=163)111
 30–44 (n=312)1.21 (0.70 to 2.11)0.4791.66 (0.48 to 5.67)0.4191.16 (0.64 to 2.11)0.609
 45 and above (n=153)1.85 (0.88 to 3.87)0.1020.32 (0.04 to 2.33)0.2612.72 (1.21 to 6.09)0.015
Work experience
 1–4 years (n=219)11
 5–9 years (n=149)1.03 (0.59 to 1.78)0.9071.06 (0.34 to 3.29)0.9171
 10 years and above (n=260)1.04 (0.57 to 1.90)0.8821.48 (0.44 to 4.99)0.5230.85 (0.47 to 1.55)0.614
Gender
 Male (n=497)111
 Female (n=131)1.38 (0.86 to 2.19)0.1720.77 (0.36 to 2.27)0.6421.38 (0.84 to 2.19)0.198
Province
 Punjab (n=163)111
 Sindh (n=300)0.86 (0.49 to 1.30)0.3790.56 (0.19 to 1.67)0.3010.91 (0.53 to 1.54)0.729
 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (n=165)1.43 (0.86 to 2.39)0.160.87 (0.30 to 2.47)0.7951.48 (0.85 to 2.58)0.166
Type of workplace
 Private clinic (n=293)111
 Basic health unit (n=335)2.55 (1.66 to 3.91)<0.0012.25 (0.83 to 6.12)0.1092.22 (1.39 to 3.55)0.001
Job title
 Support staff (n=113)111
 Doctor (393)1.04 (0.62 to 1.74)0.8811.28 (0.44 to 3.70)0.6481.17 (0.65 to 2.10)0.594
 Nurse (n=62)1.37 (0.59 to 3.16)0.4590.00 (0.00 to 0.00)Not
applicable
1.97 (0.79 to 4.86)0.141
 Technician (n=60)0.96 (0.46 to 2.02)0.9260.32 (0.03 to 2.90)0.3131.31 (0.58 to 2.94)0.514