Table 1

Indicators used during the household surveys in South Sudan, 2011 and 2015

IndicatorDefinitionClient population* (for denominators)Indicator source†
Maternal and neonatal care
 1 ANC 4+% women who received antenatal care by any health personnel ≥4 times during last pregnancyMoC <12 monthsMDG 5.5, CD2015
 2 Malaria prophylaxis% women who received ≥2 IPTs for malaria during pregnancyMoC <12 monthsCD2015
 3 Tetanus prophylaxis% mothers who received ≥2 tetanus toxoid injections before the birth of their youngest child or had lifetime immunity (card confirmed)MoC <12 monthsRelated to CD2015
 4 Institutional delivery¶% women who delivered in a health facility during last pregnancyMoC <12 monthsUHC
 5 PNC for mother% women with ≥1 postnatal care visit within 6 weeks post partum with any health personnel during last pregnancyMoC <12 monthsRelated to CD2015
Child immunisation
 6 Measles vaccination% children who received ≥1 dose of measles vaccineMoC 12–23 monthsMDG 4.3, CD2015, UHC
 7 DPT3 vaccination% children who received three DPT vaccinationsMoC 12–23 monthsCD2015, UHC
 8 All basic vaccines% children who received all basic vaccines (1 BCG, 4 OPV, 3 DPT, 1 measles)MoC 12–23 monthsUHC
 9 Vitamin A supplementation% children aged 6 months to 5 years who received vitamin A supplementation in the past 6 monthsMoC 0–59 monthsRelated to CD2015
 10 Malaria treatment% children with fever who received appropriate antimalarial drugs (ACT)MoC 0–59 months with fever in the past 2 weeksMDG 6.8, CD2015, UHC
 11 Diarrhoea treatment% children treated with ORSMoC 0–59 months with diarrhoea in the past 2 weeksCD2015
 12 Pneumonia care seeking% children with suspected pneumonia taken to an appropriate health providerMoC 0–59 months with fast, difficult breathing in the past 2 weeksCD2015, UHC
HIV testing
 13a/13b HIV testing, women/men% women/men tested for HIV in the last 12 months and received their resultsWomen/men 15–49 yearsGARPR
HIV-related knowledge
 14a/14b MTCT knowledge, women/men% women/men who know 2+ ways in which HIV is transmitted from an infected mother to her childWomen/men 15–49 years
 15a/15b Prevention knowledge‡, women/men% women/men who correctly identify using condoms and being faithful as ways of preventing sexual HIV transmissionWomen/men 15–49 yearsHIV SID 4.1
 16a/16b Misconception knowledge 1‡ (mosquito), women/men% women/men who correctly reject the misconception that HIV can be transmitted by mosquito bitesWomen/men 15–49 yearsHIV SID 4.2.2
 17a/17b Misconception knowledge 2‡ (food), women/men% women/men who correctly reject the misconception that HIV can be transmitted by sharing food with an infected personWomen/men 15–49 yearsHIV SID
 18a/18b Misconception knowledge 3‡ (witchcraft), women/men% women/men who correctly reject the misconception that HIV can be transmitted by witchcraftWomen/men 15–49 yearsHIV SID
STI-related knowledge
 19a STI knowledge, women% women who know at least two signs/symptoms of STIs in womenWomen 15–49 yearsRelated to BSS
 19b STI knowledge, men% men who know at least two signs/symptoms of STIs in menMen 15–49 yearsRelated to BSS
Contraception and HIV prevention
 20 Contraception among non-pregnant women (modern)§% women of reproductive age, currently not pregnant†, using at least one modern contraception methodWomen 15–49 yearsRelated to UHC
 21 Contraception among all married women (modern)§% married women of reproductive age, using at least one modern contraception methodWomen 15–49 yearsUHC
 22a/22b Condom use women/men% women/men who reported use of a condom the last time they had sex with a non-marital or non-cohabiting partner in the past 12 monthsWomen/men 15–49 yearsRelated to MDG 6.2
  • *MoC <12 months=mothers of children aged less than 12 months; MoC 12–23 months=mothers of children aged 12–23 months; MoC 0–59 months=mothers of children aged 0–59 months.

  • †For 2015, we computed this indicator with all women (pregnant and non-pregnant) in the denominator, per the UHC indicators and also MDG indicators, although the latter do not restrict contraception to modern methods, but include traditional methods.

  • ‡We did not combine prevention and misconception knowledge indicators because national stakeholders predicted knowledge to be very low, which would have resulted in extremely low estimates for composite indicators.

  • §Modern methods of contraception include female and male sterilisation, oral hormonal pills, intrauterine devices, male and female condoms, injectables, implants (including Norplant), vaginal barrier methods and spermicides.

  • ¶Institutional delivery means delivery in a hospital, or primary healthcare clinic (PHCC).

  • ACT, artemisinin-based combination therapy; ANC, antenatal care; BSS, Behavioral Surveillance Survey; CD2015, Countdown to 2015 for maternal, newborn and child survival; DPT, diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus; GARPR, Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting indicators (before 2012 known as UNGASS indicators); HIV SID, HIV/AIDS Survey Indicator Database; IPT, intermittent preventive treatment; MDG, Millennium Development Goal; MTCT, mother-to-child transmission of HIV; OPV, Oral Polio Vaccine; ORS, oral rehydration salts; PNC, postnatal care; STI, sexually transmitted infection; UHC, universal health coverage; UNGASS, United Nations General Assembly Special Session.