Table 3

Predictors of violence against field healthcare workers who experienced violence (n=2303)

Any form of violencePhysical violenceVerbal violence
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
P valueAdjusted OR
(95% CI)
P valueAdjusted OR
(95% CI)
P value
Age
 18–29 (n=875)111
 30–44 (n=1196)0.91 (0.70 to 1.17)0.4671.55 (0.95 to 2.53)0.0790.77 (0.59 to 1.01)0.051
 45 and above (320)0.86 (0.58 to 1.26)0.4512.04 (0.92 to 4.53)0.0790.71 (0.47 to 1.08)0.111
Work experience
 1–4 years (n=966)111
 5–9 years (n=579)0.82 (0.63 to 1.07)0.1620.60 (0.35 to 1.01)0.0550.80 (0.61 to 1.05)0.117
 10 years and above (n=846)0.67 (0.47 to 0.89)0.0080.34 (0.18 to 0.65)0.0010.63 (0.46 to 0.88)0.008
Gender
 Male (n=1260)111
 Female (n=1131)1.57 (1.18 to 2.09)0.0021.01 (0.53 to 1.95)0.9551.56 (1.16 to 2.10)0.003
Province
 Punjab (n=748)111
 Sindh (n=760)2.31 (1.82 to 2.93)<0.0013.00 (1.68 to 5.35)<0.0012.25 (1.75 to 2.90)<0.001
 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (n=706)2.38 (1.87 to 3.03)<0.0012.44 (1.35 to 4.40)0.0032.15 (1.67 to 2.76)<0.001
 Islamabad (n=177)0.52 (0.32 to 0.82)0.0060.83 (0.27 to 2.56)0.7590.36 (0.21 to 0.64)<0.001
Job title
 LHW (n=710)111
 EVO (n=420)2.1 (1.42 to 3.09)<0.0010.90 (0.38 to 2.09)0.8071.97 (1.31 to 2.94)0.001
 Vaccinator (n=924)1.25 (0.94 to 1.66)0.1250.58 (0.31 to 1.10)0.0971.20 (0.90 to 1.62)0.204
 EMT (n=249)1.25 (0.81 to 1.94)0.3051.05 (0.42 to 2.57)0.9121.09 (0.68 to 1.72)0.711
Security index
 Low (n=795)111
 Moderate (801)0.94 (0.75 to 1.18)0.6190.75 (0.47 to 1.19)0.2251.00 (0.79 to 1.26)0.979
 High (795)0.96 (0.76 to 1.20)0.7490.76 (0.48 to 1.21)0.2551.11 (0.88 to 1.41)0.352
  • EMT, emergency medical technician; EVO, emergency vehicle operator; LHW, lady health worker.