Table 4

Predictors of violence against healthcare workers in tertiary care hospitals who experienced violence (n=2815)

Any form of violencePhysical violenceVerbal violence
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
P valueAdjusted OR
(95% CI)
P valueAdjusted OR
(95% CI)
P value
Age
 18–29 (n=1511)111
 30–44 (n=1054)1.05 (0.86 to 1.28)0.611.28 (0.92 to 1.80)0.1361.00 (0.82 to 1.22)0.61
 45 and above (250)1.33 (0.93 to 1.89)0.1141.20 (0.67 to 2.14)0.521.33 (0.93 to 1.90)0.111
Work experience
 1–4 years (n=1730)111
 5–9 years (n=503)1.04 (0.83 to 1.31)0.6921.18 (0.80 to 1.73)0.41.01 (0.80 to 1.27)0.904
 10 years and above (n=582)0.91 (0.70 to 1.18)0.4961.10 (0.72 to 1.68)0.6550.84 (0.65 to 1.10)0.22
Gender
 Male (n=1582)111
 Female (n=1233)0.99 (0.82 to 1.18)0.9180.77 (0.55 to 1.07)0.1261.01 (0.84 to 1.22)0.851
City
 Lahore (n=722)111
 Karachi (n=737)3.25 (2.52 to 4.18)<0.0012.61 (1.63 to 4.18)<0.0013.38 (2.61 to 4.37)<0.001
 Peshawar (n=627)2.16 (1.64 to 2.83)<0.0012.00 (1.20 to 3.36)0.0082.07 (1.57 to 2.74)<0.001
 Islamabad (n=729)2.47 (1.95 to 3.13)<0.0011.57 (0.98 to 2.51)0.0572.53 (1.99 to 3.22)<0.001
Type of hospital
 Public (n=1414)11
 Private (n=1401)0.55 (0.46 to 0.65)<0.0010.52 (0.38 to 0.71)<0.0010.57 (0.48 to 0.68)<0.001
Department
 Diagnostics (n=252)11
 Medicine and allied (n=619)1.25 (0.84 to 1.85)0.2553.00 (1.10 to 8.18)0.0321.03 (0.70 to 1.54)0.849
 Surgery and allied (n=634)1.00 (0.69 to 1.47)0.9663.29 (1.23 to 8.81)0.0180.91 (0.62 to 1.33)0.631
 Paediatrics (n=427)1.30 (0.86 to 1.95)0.2053.26 (1.17 to 9.09)0.0231.07 (0.71 to 1.62)0.735
 Gynaecology and obstetrics (n=406)1.15 (0.76 to 1.73)0.53.02 (1.07 to 8.54)0.0361.00 (0.66 to 1.52)0.974
 Emergency (n=477)1.81 (1.22 to 2.69)0.0035.84 (2.17 to 15.72)<0.0011.39 (0.93 to 2.08)0.103
Job title
 Administration (n=137)111
 Intern/resident (n=475)0.94 (0.61 to 1.44)0.7770.72 (0.35 to 1.45)0.3641.06 (0.68 to 1.65)0.787
 Medical officer (n=569)0.78 (0.52 to 1.18)0.250.54 (0.28 to 1.04)0.0660.86 (0.56 to 1.31)0.496
 Consultant (n=131)1.00 (0.58 to 1.70)10.80 (0.34 to 1.89)0.6181.27 (0.74 to 2.19)0.374
 Nurse (n=602)1.03 (0.68 to 1.55)0.8730.54 (0.27 to 1.05)0.0711.21 (0.79 to 1.84)0.374
 Technician (n=566)1.05 (0.69 to 1.61)0.8020.68 (0.35 to 1.33)0.2631.12 (0.72 to 1.73)0.6
 Housekeeping staff (n=180)1.09 (0.67 to 1.76)0.7110.80 (0.38 to 1.69)0.5711.04 (0.64 to 1.70)0.859
 Security guard (n=155)1.96 (1.19 to 3.21)0.0081.84 (0.93 to 3.64)0.0781.77 (1.07 to 2.92)0.024
Security index
 Low (n=242)111
 Moderate (n=736)1.24 (0.90 to 1.70)0.1741.04 (0.63 to 1.74)0.8561.19 (0.86 to 1.64)0.277
 High (n=1837)1.26 (0.91 to 1.74)0.1551.09 (0.65 to 1.84)0.7311.28 (0.92 to 1.77)0.131