Table 5

Predictors of violence against healthcare workers in secondary care hospitals who experienced violence (n=1928)

Any form of violencePhysical violenceVerbal violence
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
P valueAdjusted OR
(95% CI)
P valueAdjusted OR
(95% CI)
P value
Age
 18–29 (n=726)111
 30–44 (n=897)0.96 (0.74 to 1.24)0.7811.26 (0.77 to 2.05)0.351.08 (0.83 to 1.41)0.541
 45 and above (305)1.15 (0.77 to 1.71)0.4921.01 (0.48 to 2.11)0.971.26 (0.84 to 1.90)0.255
Work experience
 1–4 years (n=792)111
 5–9 years (n=536)1.31 (1.01 to 1.70)0.0391.50 (0.92 to 2.45)0.0991.21 (0.93 to 1.57)0.152
 10 years and above (n=600)1.00 (0.72 to 1.39)0.9731.12 (0.62 to 2.04)0.6990.78 (0.56 to 1.09)0.151
Gender
 Male (n=1341)111
 Female (n=587)0.96 (0.73 to 1.26)0.8010.77 (0.47 to 1.26)0.3060.99 (0.75 to 1.31)0.992
City
 Punjab (n=689)111
 Sindh (n=579)0.53 (0.41 to 0.68)<0.0012.47 (1.60 to 3.83)<0.0010.59 (0.46 to 0.76)<0.001
 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (n=660)0.68 (0.53 to 0.89)0.0050.63 (0.36 to 1.10)0.1070.78 (0.60 to 1.02)0.07
Type of hospital
 Private hospital (n=950)111
 District headquarter hospital (n=448)1.93 (1.52 to 2.45)<0.0011.52 (0.97 to 2.38)0.0622.08 (1.63 to 2.64)<0.001
 Tehsil headquarter hospital (n=530)1.58 (1.26 to 2.00)<0.0011.99 (1.30 to 3.05)0.0011.65 (1.31 to 2.09)<0.001
Department
 Diagnostics (n=221)11
 Emergency (n=270)2.28 (1.49 to 3.50)<0.0012.77 (1.16 to 6.61)0.0222.01 (1.30 to 3.09)0.001
 Medicine and allied (n=537)1.09 (0.74 to 1.61)0.6311.23 (0.51 to 2.95)0.6340.96 (0.64 to 1.42)0.843
 Surgery and allied (n=401)0.83 (0.56 to 1.23)0.3741.30 (0.55 to 3.10)0.5430.75 (0.50 to 1.12)0.169
 Paediatrics (n=247)1.76 (1.14 to 2.72)0.0111.66 (0.66 to 4.17)0.2811.52 (0.98 to 2.37)0.059
 Gynaecology and obstetrics (n=252)1.57 (1.00 to 2.49)0.051.14 (0.43 to 3.02)0.7911.30 (0.82 to 2.06)0.264
Job title
 Support staff (n=178)111
 Doctor (741)1.35 (0.96 to 1.91)0.0830.56 (0.32 to 0.97)0.0391.89 (1.32 to 2.71)0.001
 Nurse (n=501)1.24 (0.84 to 1.84)0.2680.57 (0.30 to 1.09)0.091.53 (1.02 to 2.30)0.04
 Technician (n=508)0.97 (0.66 to 1.43)0.8980.43 (0.22 to 0.81)0.0091.31 (0.88 to 1.96)0.18
Security index
 Low (n=841)111
 Moderate (n=919)1.07 (0.86 to 1.33)0.5150.84 (0.56 to 1.25)0.411.19 (0.95 to 1.48)0.119
 High (n=168)1.52 (1.04 to 2.22)0.031.20 (0.62 to 2.32)0.5871.73 (1.18 to 2.54)0.005