Table 2

Summary of study characteristics

Citation number
Study designSetting characteristicsSample characteristics, data collection method and recruitment strategy*Data analysisQuality assessment
41 (2005)BangladeshQualitative, descriptiveTwo sites; hospital-based; NGO and government runIn depth interviews (n=28) of OSC stakeholders (government, NGO, employees and women survivors)
Purposive, snowball sampling
Thematic analysisMedium
26 (2006)BangladeshMixed methods, cross-sectional surveyOne site; hospital-based; NGO and government runSurvey (n=310) of women treated at OSC, as identified by medical chart review
Purposive sampling
Descriptive analysisLow
43 (2013)MalaysiaQualitative, descriptiveSeven sites; hospital-based; NGO and government runIn depth interviews (n=54) of OSC healthcare workers (including nurses, medical officers, gynaecologists, medical social workers and hospital managers)
Snowball sampling
Thematic analysisHigh
48 (2016)NepalQualitative, descriptiveOne site; hospital-basedFGDs (n=117) of community members, including men (n=41) and women (n=76)
Purposive sampling
Qualitative content analysisHigh
12 (2012)Kenya, ZambiaMixed methods, comparative case studyFive sites;
one NGO-owned stand-alone,
one NGO-owned hospital-based, three hospital-owned hospital based
In-depth interviews (n=25) of female and male survivors of gender-based violence, caregivers of child survivors, hospital managers and key informant interviews; medical chart review, facility inventory review
Purposive sampling
Qualitative: thematic analysis, Quantitative: EpiData and SPSS, accounting approach cost-analysisMedium-high
11 (2010)27 countries in Asia-Pacific; relevant countries include: Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Nepal, Papau New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor-LesteQualitative, descriptiveVariety of government-led, NGO-led and combined responses, both hospital-based and stand-alone facilities.Desk review, field visits, phone and email interviews with relevant OSC stakeholders at country and regional offices
Purposive sampling
Content analysis, thematic analysisLow-medium
46 (2016)Sylet and Cox's Bazar, BangladeshQualitative, descriptiveFive sites; stand-alone and hospital based; mostly government run with some NGO involvementKey informant semi-structured interviews (n=124) of United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) staff, government ministries, implementing partners and donors); mixed FGDs (n=12) of government and implementing partner staff, and community beneficiaries; site visits, desk review
Purposive sampling
Content analysis, thematic analysisLow-medium
44 (2013)RwandaQualitative, descriptiveone site;
hospital-based; government and NGO run
Semi-structured interviews and FGDs (n=93, breakdown not given) of survivors, OSC staff, and UN and government stakeholders; facility observation
Convenience and purposive sampling
Thematic analysisHigh
33 (2013)ZambiaQualitative, cross-sectional surveyEight sites; two stand-alone centres and six hospital-based; all international NGO fundedSurvey (n=197) of female and male survivors of IPV or SV who accessed centre
Convenience sampling
Descriptive analysisLow
30 (2013)NepalMixed methodsFour sites; hospital-based; government-runIn-depth interviews of female and male survivors of IPV or SV (n=20) and central stakeholders (n=137) including government employees and donors (n=13), health workers (n=58), members of coordination committees (n=42) and other (n=24).
Purposive and convenience sampling
Content and thematic analysis, SWOT analysisMedium
13 (2016)South AfricaQualitative, descriptive55 sites (Thuthuzela centres); hospital-based and stand-alone; government and NGO runSemi-structured interviews and surveys (number not provided) of National Prosecuting Authority staff, NGO staff, OSC managers and national experts in GBV in South Africa; facility observation
Non-random sampling not otherwise specified
Qualitative: thematic analysisHigh
51 (2003)KenyaQualitative, descriptive10 voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) sites, 11 hospitals, 6 legal and advocacy support programme; one hospital-based, private OSC (gender violence recovery centres)In-depth and semi-structured interviews of male and female key informants (n=34) and FGDs (n=18) including hospital staff, police officers, government and NGO workers and VCT counsellors; facility observations
Stratified and purposive sampling
Thematic analysis, content analysisHigh
45 (2010)ZambiaMixed methods10 sites; stand-alone and hospital-based, NGO and government- runSemi-structured interviews (n=240) of key informants including beneficiaries, stakeholders and ministry officials; facility observations
Sampling strategy not stated
Descriptive analysisLow
37 (2014)NepalQualitative, descriptive16 sites; hospital-based, government-run (Ministry of Health and Population)Interviews of survivors of IPV and SV, government officials, OSC staff and community members
Sampling strategy not stated
Descriptive analysisLow
39 (2016)PakistanMixed methods; cross-sectional, qualitative descriptive12 sites; stand-alone, or within government (non-medical) facilities, government-runSemi-structured telephone interviews (n=136), including female survivors of IPV and SV (n=123), and male and female OSC managers (n=13); field visits and surveys
Simple random sampling
Quantitative: standard statistical techniques, that is, descriptive analysis using SPSS and MS office; qualitative: thematic analysis of the open ended survey and interview questionsMedium-high
38 (2017)IndiaQualitative, descriptiveFour sites;
hospital-based and police-station-based, government-run.
In-depth interviews (n=80) including survivors of sexual assault (n=15), family members of survivors (n=25) and lawyers, civil society activists and advocates (n=15), doctors and forensic experts (n=6), government officials (n=12) and police officers (n=7)
Purposive sampling
Thematic analysisMedium-high
18 (2002)PhilippinesMixed methods; retrospective cohort, qualitative descriptiveOne site (women and children protection unit);
hospital-based, government-run
Medical chart review of non-pregnant women and children who were survivors of IPV and/or SV (n=1354)
Convenience sampling
Basic descriptive statistical analysisMedium
19 (2013)KenyaMixed methods; retrospective cohort, qualitative descriptiveOne site;
Clinic-based, NGO-run (Médecins Sans Frontières)
Medical chart review of female and male, child and adult survivors of sexual violence (n=866)
Purposive sampling
Basic descriptive statistical analysis using Microsoft Excel and EpiData Analysis 2.1, qualitative descriptive analysisMedium-high
20 (2015)MalaysiaQuantitative cross-sectional observationalone site;
hospital-based, government-run
Self-reporting survey of male and female survivors of IPV (n=159)
Purposive sampling
Basic statistical analyses conducted using SPSS V.20.High
15 (2011)MalaysiaQualitative, descriptiveTwo sites;
Hospital-based, combined NGO and government run
In-depth interviews (n=20), including policymakers (n=8), NGO representatives (n=7), healthcare workers (n=1) and police and social welfare representatives (n=4)
Purposive and snowball sampling
Content analysisHigh
16 (2012)MalaysiaQualitative descriptiveSeven sites;
hospital-based, combined NGO and government run
In-depth and semi-structured interviews (n=74) including accidents and emergency doctors (n=23), gynaecologists (n=6), nurses (n=14), medical social workers (n=5), counsellors (n=2), psychiatrists (n=4), policymakers (n=8) and key informants (n=12)
Purposive and snowball sampling
Content and framework analysisHigh
49 (2009)IndiaMixed methods; cross-sectional observational, qualitative descriptiveOne centre (Centre for Vulnerable Women and Children); stand-alone, combined NGO and government-runSelf-reported reflections and interviews with healthcare workers, female survivors of IPV/SV who utilised the centre (number not provided)
Convenience sampling
Descriptive narrative analysisLow
10 (2002)ThailandRetrospective cohort, quasi-experimental, cross-overTwo centres; hospital-based, government-runStructured and in-depth interviews (n=249) of female and male hospital staff including physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists and intake personnel, community women’s leader groups, staff attorneys and police officers
Sampling strategy not stated
Descriptive analysisLow
21 (2017)ZimbabweRetrospective cohortOne site (Sexual and Gender-Based Violence Clinic);
clinic-based, combined NGO (MSF) and government-run
Medical chart review (n=3617) of female and male survivors of sexual violence, including survivors ages over 16 (n=1071), ages 12–15 (n==615) and ages under 12 (n=93).
Descriptive statistics using Stata V.11. X2 tests, Fisher’s exact tests, logic regression, and model buildingHigh
40 (2009)KenyaQualitative, descriptiveThree sites;
hospital-based (emergency department), combined NGO and government-run
Client exit interviews (n=734) of female and male, child and adult survivors of rape
Sampling strategy not stated
Situational analysisLow
32 (2009)South AfricaBefore and after intervention; retrospective cohortOne site;
hospital-based, government-run
Semi-structured interviews with female and male survivors of rape (n=109) and service providers (n=16) (doctors, nurses, social workers, a pharmacist and police officers); medical chart review
Convenience sampling
Quantitative descriptive analysis using Stata. Risk ratios estimated using Poisson regression to estimate intervention effect.
Qualitative analysis methods not clearly stated
17 (2016)Democratic Republic of CongoQualitative, descriptiveTwo sites;
Hospital based, privately-run
Descriptive personal narrative of medical director/obstetrics-gynaecologist and midwife (n=2)Thematic analysisLow
22 (2011)KenyaRetrospective cohortOne site;
hospital-based, government-run
Medical chart review of female and male survivors of sexual abuse (n=321), including children and adults, (median age 15.9 years; range 8 months to 100 years)
Purposive sampling
Summary descriptive statistics using Stata SE 10.0. Estimates of association calculated using Student’s t-test, X2 tests and Fisher’s exact testsHigh
23 (2006)South AfricaObservational, descriptiveOne site (victim support centre);
hospital-based, government-run
Self-reported survey of female and male survivors of rape (n=105)
(median age 23.5 years; range 16–68) treated at the centre
Purposive sampling
Descriptive analysisLow
14 (2010)Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Senegal, South Africa, Zambia, ZimbabweRetrospective cohort, qualitative, descriptiveSeven sites;
includes variety of comprehensive care models including Thohoyandou Victim Empowerment Programme, South Africa, and the
Kamuzu Central Hospital, Malawi;
hospital-based, NGO-run
Interviews, surveys and medical chart review of survivors of sexual violence, healthcare workers, policymakers, government officials
Sampling strategy not stated
Data analysis methods not clearly statedLow
24 (2017)TaiwanCross-sectionalFive centres;
hospital-based, government-run
Survey (n=140), using Index of Interdisciplinary Collaboration tool of social workers, doctors, nurses, police officers and prosecutor
Purposive sampling
Statistical analysis via SPSS 18. Multivariate analysis of variance conducted for association analyses, eta-square for power of effect, and multilinear regression for influencers on collaborationHigh
25 (2016)ChinaRetrospective cohortTwo sites (RainLily);
Medical chart review (n=154) of female survivors of sexual assault (median age 22 years; range 13–64)
Purposive sampling
Descriptive statistical analysis via PASW Statistics 18, and Mann-Whitney test for highly skewed distributionsLow
31 (2008)Papua New GuineaMixed methods; cross-sectional, qualitative descriptiveten sites (only Family Support Centres (FSCs) relevant to this review); Hospital-based, government and NGO runSurvey (n=39) of stakeholders (government officials, NGO representatives, and donors;
In-depth interviews (n=17) of key informants (donors, service providers, governments officials, local women’s rights activists and faith-based groups)
Purposive and snowball sampling
Descriptive and thematic analysisModerate
50 (2016)Papua New GuineaRetrospective cohortOne site (FSC); hospital-based, government and NGO (MSF) runMedical chart review (n=5212) of male and female presentations for SV and/or IPV
Purposive sampling
Statistical analysis via χ2-squared or Fisher’s exact tests, multiple variable adjusted analyses, and modified Poisson regressionModerate-high
36 (2013)South AfricaQualitative, descriptiveTwo sites;
Stand-alone (near health facility), run by NGO (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime), later transferred to SA government
Telephone and in-person interviews (n=20) of staff, representatives from government, civil society organisations, UNODC and advisory committees
Convenience sampling
Descriptive and thematic analysisModerate
29 (2011)MalawiMixed methods; retrospective cohort, qualitative descriptiveThree sites; hospital-based, combined NGO and government-runIn-depth interviews (n=15) of healthcare workers (including doctors, clinical officers, nurses, midwives, social workers, health surveillance assistants and village health committee members). Key informant interviews (n=12) with policymakers, donors and other stakeholders and FGDs (n=10) with healthcare workers; chart review
Purposive stratified sampling
Qualitative: thematic analysis
Quantitative: descriptive statistical analysis and summary statistics via Epi Info, Pearson’s X2 and Fisher’s exact test
47 (2012)KenyaQualitative, descriptiveFour sites (only the
Gender-Based Violence Recovery Centre (GBVRC) relevant to this review); hospital-based, government-run
Semi-structural interviews of female adult survivors of IPV/SV (n=8), and staff members (n=5) (head of department, psychologist, social worker, nurse counsellor and receptionist); client flow observations
Purposive sampling
Thematic analysisHigh
27 (2010)Sierra LeoneQualitative, descriptiveThree centres (Rainbow Centres);
stand-alone, NGO-run
In-depth interviews and FGDs of (n=101) male and female survivors of sexual assault and
(n=22) OSC and NGO staff, including community leaders, judicial investigators, court magistrates and police; facility observations
Convenience sampling
Descriptive analysisModerate
35 (2015)South AfricaQualitative, descriptive29 sites (Thuthuzela centres); variety of hospital-based, stand-alone, police and court-based centres;
combined NGO and government run, or only government-run
In-depth interviews (n=40) of OSC directors and programme managers; participant observation
Non-random sampling not otherwise specified
Descriptive analysisModerate
42 (2004)IndiaQualitative, descriptiveOne centre (Dilaasa); hospital-based,
Combined NGO and government run
Semi-structured interviews
(n=27) of adult female survivors of IPV/SV, including current and former programme participants
Purposive sampling
Content analysisHigh
34 (2010)IndiaQualitative, descriptiveTwo centres (Dilaasa); hospital- based, combined NGO and government runSemi-structured interviews with survivors of violence, project personnel, coordinator, mentors and hospital staff (number not specified); facility observation
Sampling strategy not stated
Thematic analysisModerate
28 (2018)MongoliaQualitative, descriptiveFour sites; variety of centres–some health facility based, stand-alone, and police-station based, variety of government and NGO-run, funded by UNFPAIn-depth interviews (n=36) and FGDs (n=6) of key informants
Sampling strategy not stated
Thematic analysisLow-moderate
  • *Some details of sample characteristics such as participant sex, age, professional role, specific sampling strategy and data collection and analysis methods were not provided in the primary studies, and thus do not appear in table 2.

  • FGD, focus group discussion; FSC, family support centre; IPV, intimate partner violence; MOU, memorandum of understanding; MSF, Médecins Sans Frontières; OSC, one stop centre; SOP, standard operating procedures; SPSS, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences; SV, sexual violence; VAW, violence against women.