Table 3

Summary of quantitative study findings

Citation number (year)Key findings of enablers and barriersQuality assessmentThemes incorporated into qualitative synthesis (E=enabler, B=barrier)
18 (2002)There was a delay from time of the abuse to presentation at the OSC, which was attributed to the geographic inaccessibility of the centre, especially for rural populations, as well as lack of community awareness. Higher reporting of sexual abuse cases was attributed to preference among women and children community members to seek care from doctors who specialise in this care and can meet survivor needs.Medium
  • B: Lack of access to rural populations

  • B: Lack of community awareness of OSC services

  • F: Sensitive staff knowledge, attitudes and behaviours

19 (2013)There was poor follow-up for medical interventions that required repeat visits. Standardised procedures and protocols assisted in providing quality care to survivors.Medium-high
  • B: Lack of long-term support and follow-up

  • F: Standardised policies and procedures

20 (2015)There were weaknesses in OSC staff documentation and concerns over survivor confidentiality. OSC staff had unclear roles and responsibilities. Some of the OSC staff were found to have victim-blaming attitudes, and many failed to provide necessary health information to patients. Some staff did not provide rape survivors with sensitive care and failed to spend time to console patients after report of sexual assault. There was a lack of OSC staff training, with more than half of the staff having never attended any training sessions in OSC management even after some had worked for years in the OSC.High
  • B: Poor documentation and data management systems

  • B: Compromised confidentiality and privacy

  • B: Unclear staff responsibilities and roles

  • B: Harmful staff attitudes

  • B: Harmful behaviours of health workers

  • B: Failure to provide health information

  • B: Inadequate training on trauma informed care and OSC operations

21 (2017)Follow-up was a common issue, and 42% or 938 survivors had no follow-upHigh
  • B: Lack of long-term support and follow-up

22 (2011)44% of survivors were reported to receive counselling at the centre. There was a lack of available psychosocial support, and only one counsellor was available during standard business hours throughout the duration of this study. There was a lack of support for survivors who presented at night or on weekends. Another barrier was lack of awareness of OSC services and support for women rape survivors in the community. Clear protocols were noted to assist in improved documentation at the centre.High
  • B: Lack of adequate psychosocial services and staff

  • B: Lack of services on nights and weekends

  • B: Lack of community awareness of OSC services

  • F: Standardised policies and procedures

23 (2006)There was a lack of survivor-centred care, with privacy concerns. Survivors had to wait in their blood stained, dirty clothes until the healthcare worker could examine them. There was also a lack of provision of health information, such as STI, HIV and pregnancy risk after sexual assault. Long waiting times were also a concern at the hospital.Low
  • B: Compromised confidentiality and privacy

  • B: Failure to provide health information

  • B: Long wait times

24 (2017)The perceived degree of interdisciplinary collaboration was lowest among social workers, who felt less trust, respect, informal communication and understanding between collaborators. Healthcare workers perceived the least support from their organisation. Support from higher management and regular interagency meetings were viewed as helpful to improve collaboration.High
  • B: Weak multi-sectoral collaboration

  • F: Regular interagency meetings

  • F: Support from executive leadership

  • F: Increased interprofessional interaction opportunities

25 (2016)Follow-up attendance after the incident was 57.8%, 63.6%, 59.1% and 46.8% at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months, respectively. Overall, less than half of survivors returned for follow-up visits.Low
  • B: Lack of long-term support and follow-up

  • OSC, one stop centre; STI, sexually transmitted infections.