Table 1

Associations between gender equity in income and food security, diets and nutritional status

ExposureAnalysisYearNEquity gapEffect95% CIStandardised effectStandardised
95% CI
Outcome: food share (not included in meta-analysis)
Lachaud31Women’s share of household income2-stage tobit199447440.26*2.360.25 to 4.470.620.07 to 1.18
McCarthy and Kilic35Women earn all unpooled income versus men earn allSUR2010–201338580.06†0.70−1.46 to 2.850.00−0.00 to 0.00
Outcome: Ln (food expenditure)
Hopkins et al23Women’s income versus men’s2SLS199045245 808†0.000.01
Duflo and Udry29Change in women’s income versus change in men’s2SLS1985–19889730.71†0.170.12
Josephson34Change in women's Ln agricultural income versus men'sDiD, IV2010–20136930.89†0.150.13
Aromolaran28Women’s share of household income2SLS1999–200025730.20*−0.13−0.23 to −0.03−0.03−0.05 to −0.01
Outcome: food expenditure
McCarthy and Kilic35Women earn all unpooled income versus men earn allOLS FE2010–201338580.06†0.06−0.04 to 0.170.03−0.00 to 0.00
Outcome: Household Food Insecurity Access Scale
Van den Broeck et al30Women’s employment in agricultural export sector versus men’sDiD2013–2016461−0.07‡−0.150.01
Outcome: child’s energy adequacy ratio (intakes/requirements)
Senauer and Garcia27Mother’s wage versus father’s2SLS1983–198423200.01†0.070.00
Outcome: height-for-age z-score
Senauer and Garcia27Mother’s wage versus father’s2SLS1983–198423200.01†0.380.00
Marinda32Mothers’ income minus men’s2SLS2003129−0.00
Outcome: low height-for-age
Gaiha and Kulkarni25Male–female wage differencePoisson199426 8541.06†−0.07−0.01 to −0.13−0.08−0.14 to −0.01
Lachaud31Women’s share of household income2-stage probit199413520.28*−0.23−0.43 to −0.03−0.03−0.06 to −0.00
Outcome: weight-for-height z-score
Senauer and Garcia27Mother’s wage versus father’s2SLS1983–198423200.01†−0.19−0.00
Outcome: low weight-for height
Lachaud31Women’s share of household incomeProbit199413520.28*−0.09−0.43 to 0.25−0.00−0.01 to 0.01
Outcome: weight-for-age z-score
Shoo33Mother has a non-farming source of income versus fatherOLS2011152−0.04
Outcome: low weight-for-age
Lachaud31Women’s share of household incomeProbit199413520.28*−0.27−0.47 to −0.07−0.04−0.06 to −0.01
  • *Difference between observed level of exposure and perfect equity, defined as 0.5.

  • †Half of the difference between men and women.

  • ‡Calculated in a Bayesian combination as the difference in probability that a man versus a woman works in the horticultural export sector.

  • DiD, difference-in-difference; FE, fixed effects; IV, instrumental variable; Ln, Natural logarithm; OLS, ordinary least squares; 2SLS, two-stage least squares; SUR, seemingly unrelated panel regression.