Table 3

Associations between gender equity and hypothesised intermediate outcomes

ExposureOutcomeAnalysisYearsNEquity gapEffect95% CIStandardised effectStandardised
95% CI
Gender inequity in income→household income
Duflo and Udry29Predicted change in women’s income versus predicted change in men’sLn total expenditure2SLS1985–19889730.71*0.180.13
McCarthy and Kilic35Female earn all unpooled income versus men earn allTotal consumption expenditures per capitaOLS FE2010–201338580.06*0.05−0.03 to 0.130.000.00 to 0.00
Gender inequity in land or livestock→women’s empowerment
Santos et al36Women's name on land title (solely or jointly) versus men's name onlyWomen take decisions about whether to take a loan from a Self Help Group or microfinance institutionPSM and OLS201210350.25†0.140.08 to 0.200.040.02 to 0.05
Santos et al36Women's name on land title (solely or jointly) versus men's name onlyWomen take decisions about purchase of productive assetsPSM and OLS201210350.25†0.150.07 to 0.230.040.02 to 0.06
Santos et al36Women's name on land title (solely or jointly) versus men's name onlyWomen take decisions about food purchase and consumption decisionsPSM and OLS201210350.25†0.130.05 to 0.210.030.01 to 0.05
Santos et al36Women's name on land title (solely or jointly) versus men's name onlyWomen take decisions about how to use the plot of landPSM and OLS201210350.25†0.13−0.01 to 0.270.030.00 to 0.07
  • *Half of the difference between men and women.

  • †Assuming all assets should be jointly owned.

  • FE, fixed effects; Ln, Natural logarithm; OLS, ordinary least squares; PSM, propensity score matching; 2SLS, two-stage least squares.