Table 3

Estimates of the population attributable fraction and age-standardised burden rate (per 100 000) of CKD attributable to PM2.5 by World Bank income classification

World Bank income classificationPAF (95% UI)Incidence (95% UI)Prevalence (95% UI)DALY (95% UI)Death (95% UI)
Low income19.2 (17.6 to 20.8)66.0 (56.8 to 74.8)1925.2 (1699.1 to 2147.7)127.0 (103.5 to 148.8)4.8 (3.9 to 5.7)
Lower middle income23.7 (22.0 to 25.5)68.2 (58.8 to 77.3)2350.2 (2087.8 to 2605.3)149.1 (128.8 to 168.7)5.4 (4.6 to 6.1)
Upper middle income18.3 (16.8 to 19.8)34.0 (28.9 to 38.8)1498.7 (1324.2 to 1669.8)66.2 (58.4 to 73.9)2.5 (2.2 to 2.8)
High income8.9 (8.0 to 9.7)21.0 (17.6 to 24.1)643.1 (561.8 to 722.0)25.6 (21.3 to 29.7)1.1 (0.9 to 1.3)
  • Estimates were generated using the integrated non-linear exposure response model using only PM2.5 data where cross-sectional studies were deweighted.

  • CKD, chronic kidney disease; DALY, disability-adjusted life-year; PAF, population attributable fraction; PM2.5, ambient fine particulate matter; UI, uncertainty interval.