Table 3

Associations between demographic and WASH characteristics and regular practice of open defecation among households with access to a toilet (n=11 549)

UnadjustedP valueNAdjustedP value
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Main sanitation option
Flush/pour flush to septic tank or pit latrine1.079731.0
Flush/pour flush to piped sewer system0.79 (0.70 to 0.90)0.000213780.91 (0.80 to 1.04)0.17
Flush/pour flush to elsewhere0.77 (0.58 to 1.03)0.0742190.66 (0.49 to 0.89)0.0070
Flush/pour flush to unknown3.69 (2.04 to 6.65)<0.0001524.62 (2.37 to 9.02)<0.0001
Ventilated improved pit latrine0.59 (0.51 to 0.68)<0.000111520.55 (0.47 to 0.64)<0.0001
Pit latrine with slab0.79 (0.66 to 0.96)0.0204960.61 (0.49 to 0.74)<0.0001
Pit latrine without slab2.33 (1.62 to 3.35)<0.00011212.24 (1.53 to 3.30)<0.0001
Composting toilet5.73 (1.19 to 27.6)0.02992.60 (0.53 to 12.64)0.24
Bucket toilet2.89 (1.94 to 4.31)<0.00011051.34 (0.88 to 2.04)0.17
Hanging toilet/hanging latrine6.55 (1.39 to 30.9)0.017103.88 (0.67 to 22.63)0.13
Sanitation sharing
Not shared1.010 5361.0
Shared with less than 10 HHs0.39 (0.33 to 0.47)<0.00018400.52 (0.43 to 0.62)<0.0001
Shared with 10 or more HHs3.19 (1.96 to 5.18)<0.0001732.30 (1.39 to 3.81)0.0012
Shared with public1.45 (0.81 to 2.62)0.21451.25 (0.66 to 2.36)0.49
Handwashing
No handwashing station observed1.023461.0
No soap or water0.80 (0.57 to 1.13)0.211441.01 (0.70 to 1.47)0.94
Soap only1.08 (0.89 to 1.30)0.455301.36 (1.11 to 1.68)0.0032
Water only0.71 (0.62 to 0.82)<0.000112391.01 (0.86 to 1.18)0.93
Soap and water0.63 (0.57 to 0.69)<0.000172881.10 (0.98 to 1.23)0.10
Class of main drinking water
Unimproved1.03171.0
Improved0.73 (0.58 to 0.91)0.005811 2291.22 (0.96 to 1.55)0.11
Reliability of main drinking water
Always1.088791.0
Intermittent (predictable)0.93 (0.84 to 1.03)0.1919731.11 (0.99 to 1.24)0.063
Intermittent (unpredictable)1.50 (1.28 to 1.75)<0.00016891.89 (1.60 to 2.24)<0.0001
Water collection time
0 min1.056831.0
1–10 min2.11 (1.90 to 2.33)<0.000122521.69 (1.51 to 1.89)<0.0001
11–30 min2.21 (2.00 to 2.44)<0.000124301.58 (1.41 to 1.77)<0.0001
>30 min2.80 (2.46 to 3.19)<0.000111351.82 (1.58 to 2.11)<0.0001
Urban/rural residence
Urban1.043161.0
Rural2.12 (1.95 to 2.30)<0.000172331.55 (1.40 to 1.71)<0.0001
Wealth quintile
Lowest1.08311.0
Lower0.74 (0.62 to 0.87)0.000317060.83 (0.70 to 0.99)0.04
Middle0.53 (0.46 to 0.63)<0.000124710.62 (0.53 to 0.74)<0.0001
Higher0.46 (0.39 to 0.53)<0.000131100.56 (0.47 to 0.67)<0.0001
Highest0.32 (0.27 to 0.37)<0.000133700.41 (0.34 to 0.49)<0.0001
Number of household members
1–31.025451.0
4–50.92 (0.83 to 1.01)0.08747670.99 (0.89 to 1.11)0.90
6+1.08 (0.98 to 1.20)0.1242371.16 (1.04 to 1.30)0.010
Maximum household age per 10 years1.03 (1.00 to 1.05)0.04711 5491.00 (0.97 to 1.03)0.79
Survey month0.97 (0.96 to 0.97)<0.000111 5480.96 (0.96 to 0.97)<0.0001