Table 1

Participants, interventions, comparators, outcomes and study designs (PICOS) of observational studies (n=14)

IDReferenceStudy designAimed to determineCountrySettingParticipantsnOutcomes
71Udezi et al 19 Cross-sectional surveyMedication information needsNigeriaUrban pharmacies; Enugu state capital32 community and 26 hospital pharmacists58Sources of medication information
127Anasi e t al 30 Cross-sectional surveyUse of the internet for professional practiceNigeriaCommunity pharmacies115 community pharmacists115Searching for drug and disease-related information
76Wabe e t al 20 Cross-sectional surveyKnowledge, attitude and practice of patient counsellingEthiopiaDrug retail outlets; urban12 pharmacists, 43 ‘druggists’, 3 pharmacy technicians, 6 health assistants64Sources of medication information
113Asmelashe Gelayee et al 21 Cross-sectional surveyMedication information needs and resourcesEthiopiaCommunity pharmacies/drug stores; Gondar town48 community pharmacists48Sources of medication information
74Usanga e t al 24 Cross-sectional surveyInformation technology use and attitudesZimbabweCommunity pharmacies; Harare46 community pharmacists46Facilities in pharmacies, use the internet
107Kamuhabwa and Kisoma 22 Cross-sectional surveyFactors that influence prescribingTanzaniaPublic and private health facilities in Dar es SalaamMedical specialists, medical officers, intern doctors192Sources of medication information
31Rusatira et al 31 Online survey and interviewsUser requirements, available resources and potentialRwandaAll 44 district hospitals97 surveyed doctors and 16 interviewed general practitioners113Internet access, frequency of use and sources
95Graham e t al 29 Observation of consultations, focus groups, in-depth interviewsAdherence to guidelines, rational antibiotics use, adherenceZambiaDistricts of Luapula northern provinces55 caregivers+90 community health workers145Use of aids
21Samiak and Vince23 Semiqualitative cross-sectional surveyUse of the Paediatric Standard Treatment BookPapua New GuineaUrban clinics and rural health centres61 nurses and 45 community health workers106Use of book and reasons for non-use
8Agbo et al 25 Semistructured interviewsKnowledge and prescription patternsNigeriaPrimary health centre in Jos North; urban4 health personnel involved in the consultation and treatment of the patients and nurse in charge of drugstore4Availability and use of guidelines
126Oduor e t al 26 Semistructured interviewsHow and why providers and patients used technologiesKenyaHealth facility in Migori; rural27 medical practitioners, 9 patients with HIV36Sources and technologies used to manage patients
41Reynolds et al 27 InterviewsPerceptions on malaria diagnosisAfghanistan22 health centres; 10 north and 12 eastDoctors, nurses, medical assistants, one assistant doctor (or feldsher, an assistant physician trained under the Russian system) and one community health supervisor39Availability and use of guidelines
53Perwaiz Iqbal and Rahman28 Focus groupsPerceptions on resistant tuberculosis diagnosisPakistanShifa College of Medicine, Islamabad12 general practitioners12Availability and use of guidelines
49Park et al 7 Focus groupsInformation needs, perceptions of Wikipedia as a clinical toolBotswanaClinics, health posts within 10 km district hospitals; rural113 health workers across district hospitals, clinics and health posts113Information needs and perceptions