Table 2

Participants, interventions, comparators, outcomes and study designs (PICOS) of intervention studies (n=9)

IDRefStudy designAimInterventionComparatorCountrySettingParticipantsnOutcomes
39Rambaud-Althaus et al 32 Pilot cluster randomised controlled studyTo compare smartphone and paper-based versionsElectronic version of Algorithm for Management of Childhood Illness (ALMANACH)Paper versionTanzania9 health facilities in Dar es Salaam48 health workers; paper n=18, electronic n=30, and 504 children552Proportion of children appropriately managed
63Shao et al 33 Qualitative in-depth interviews and focus group discussionsTo assess health worker’s perceptions on uptake6 health facilities in Dar es SalaamPrimary health workers; interviews n=24, focus groups n=1640Views on correct treatment
120Palazuelos et al 46 Mixed methods comparison: survey and interviewsTo compare perceptions on the mobile and paper versionsMobile-based medicine dosing tool
App CommCare for different medications
Paper-based toolMexico, GuatemalaSmall rural mountain towns17 community health workers; Mexico n=11, Guatemala n=617Perceptions on use
125Segal et al 35 Before-and-after studyTo measure the app’s usability and effect on patient-centrednessGuatemalaPrimary care clinics6 interns6Accuracy, usability and patient-centredness
2Abouda e t al 37 Before-and-after studyTo report on the impact of using integrated syndromic guidelinesAlgorithms for treatment of respiratory diseasesUsual careTunisia28 primary healthcare clinics in Tunis73 general practitioners; 2366 patients at baseline, 1475 impact survey3914Mediation prescribed, average cost and perceptions
87Adams et al 38 Evaluation: feasibility of an antidepressant dosing toolTo task shift depression management to an HIV clinicTreatment algorithm to determine antidepressant doseNoneTanzaniaHIV clinic, northern hospital20 depressed patients (1 moved out, 2 lost to follow-up) and their healthcare providers17Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Item Score
47Praveen et al 47 Evaluation: clinical and survey data and in-depth interviewsTo develop and evaluate a clinical decision support systemMobile-based system for cardiovascular diseaseNoneIndia3 health centres; Andhra Pradesh3 primary health centre physicians3Use of tool, confidence in prescribing
121Catalani et al 36 Evaluation: site observations, key informant interviews, lab simulation and usability testingTo develop, implement and evaluate the system using a human-centred designPatient-specific clinical decision support system for tuberculosis treatmentNoneKenya24 rural clinics in the West24 key informants (medical superintendents, clinicians, Ministry of Health officials, laboratory managers, pharmacy managers, medical directors, TB care providers, administrators and programme managers, data quality workers and community health workers); 217 pseudopatients; 9 clinicians250Perceptions on use
124Bessat et al 34 Evaluation of implementationTo investigate clinician insights on the toolElectronic version of Integrated Management of Childhood IllnessNoneBurkina Faso10 primary care facilities21 health workers21Perception of its medical content, usability
  • TB, tuberculosis.