Table 4

Challenges and opportunities for future prevention and control of EVD outbreak

FactorChallengeOpportunityAction
Epidemiological and ecological factors
  • Ebola viruses are endemic in central and western African rainforests.

  • Known EVD endemic country.

  • Establishing the magnitude of EVD in endemic countries.

  • Consolidate knowledge on the magnitude and health determinants of infectious disease epidemics in all endemic and countries at high risk.

Health system factors
  • Limited laboratory capacities.

  • Weak surveillance systems.

  • Lack of effective therapeutics and vaccines.

  • Inadequate budget for the healthcare system.

  • Availability of molecular and serological laboratory techniques.

  • Adoption of one-health surveillance.

  • Improving self-regulation.

  • Country‚Äôs political will and involvement of partners.

  • Strengthen capacity for detection, identification and response, including laboratory infrastructure and human capacity; implement one-health surveillance; development of early warning systems.

  • Conduct of clinical trial on available and new therapeutic and vaccine candidates.

  • Resource mobilisation.

Sociocultural factors
  • High-risk behaviours.

  • Limited community involvement.

  • Adoption of one-health approach in engaging communities in most countries.

  • Availability of information and communication technologies.

  • Strengthen public health education and promotion using various channels, including social media.

  • Empowering individuals and communities.

  • EVD, Ebola virus disease.