Table 3

Robustness check

ExposureOutcomeEffect estimate (SE)
Model 1: 2SLS, slope change in year of birthYears of schoolingMalaria positive−6.3** (2.6)
Model 2: 2SLS, quadratic in year of birthYears of schoolingMalaria positive−6.3** (2.9)
Model 3: 2SLS, quadratic in maternal ageYears of schoolingMalaria positive−6.4* (3.9)
Model 4: 2SLS, control birth orderYears of schoolingMalaria positive−9.3* (5.4)
Model 5: 2SLS, narrow windowYears of schoolingMalaria positive−8.2* (4.8)
Model 6: 2SLS, exclude 1982 cohortYears of schoolingMalaria positive−7.4*** (3.4)
Model 7: 2SLS, MalawiYears of schoolingMalaria positive−7.1*** (2.6)
Model 8: ITT, education=0Reform exposureMalaria positive−0.7 (5.0)
  • Coefficient and SEs are multiplied by 100 and reported on a percentage point scale. Models 1–6 were estimated by IV-2SLS method, in which binary indicator for being born 1982 or later was used as an excluded IV for maternal years of schooling. Model 7 was estimated by IV-2SLS method, in which binary indicator for being born 1979 or later was used as an excluded IV for maternal years of schooling. Model 8 is estimated by ordinary least square method. The entire model controls for a full set of children’s age-in-months indicators, linear term of maternal year of birth, indicator for survey year, indicator for survey month, indicator for child sex, indicator for ethnic groups and maternal age. No weights were used.

  • *P<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • ITT, intention-to-treat ; IV, instrumental variable; 2SLS, two-stage least square.