Table 2

Difference in the percentage of effective income spent on healthcare, risk of experiencing catastrophic spending and risk of experiencing impoverishment, adjusted for household characteristics, NCD and HTN-only households compared with non-NCD/HTN households: PURE Study

Country income groupHouseholds with no NCD/HTNHTN-only versus non-NCD/HTN householdsNCD versus non-NCD/HTN householdsTest for trend*
Percentage of effective income spent on health
N%Mean difference95% CIMean difference95% CIP value
High76463.230.790.09 to 1.491.310.71 to 1.91<0.001
Upper middle13 7414.750.34−1.08 to 1.762.771.49 to 4.05<0.001
Lower middle97956.620.94−1.66 to 3.533.551.31 to 5.800.001
Low21553.070.98−2.30 to 4.261.66−1.27 to 4.590.269
China18 4897.074.243.16 to 5.327.896.85 to 8.94<0.001
Risk of catastrophic expenditure
N%Risk difference95% CIRisk difference95% CIP value
High76461.220.21−0.50 to 0.920.770.09 to 1.450.018
Upper middle13 7411.360.29−0.12 to 0.690.820.37 to 1.27<0.001
Lower middle97953.820.21−0.76 to 1.191.710.75 to 2.67<0.001
Low21552.60−0.27−2.17 to 1.64−0.22−1.91 to 1.480.826
China18 4893.564.042.88 to 5.197.525.88 to 9.16<0.001
Risk of impoverishment
N%Risk difference95% CIRisk difference95% CIP value
High76460.420.01−0.34 to 0.370.29−0.08 to 0.660.0896
Upper middle13 7410.300.09−0.06 to 0.250.340.13 to 0.55<0.001
Lower middle97951.10−0.02−0.43 to 0.390.430.01 to 0.840.062
Low21550.650.81(−0.38 to 2.01)0.62−0.30 to 1.540.446
China18 4890.820.660.28 to to 1.63<0.001
  • *Regression-based test substituting factor household variable (ie, NCD vs HTN-only vs non-NCD/HTN) with ordinal/linear variable, followed by likelihood ratio test to assess model fit.

  • HTN, hypertension; NCD, non-communicable disease; PURE, Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology.