Table 3

Cost-saving interventions in LMICs (2008–2017). n (cost-saving ratios)=207; n (articles)=33

Targeted region*n (ratios) (%)
Central Europe, Eastern Europe and Central Asia5 (2%)
Latin America and Caribbean24 (12%)
North Africa and Middle East24 (12%)
South Asia13 (6%)
Southeast Asia, East Asia and Oceania58 (28%)
Sub-Saharan Africa110 (53%)
GBD classification (n=207)
Communicable maternal, neonatal and nutritional disorders (n=126; 61%)
Frequency missing=3
 Diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, meningitis and other common infectious diseases18 (15%)
 HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis57 (46%)
 Maternal disorders3 (2%)
 Neglected tropical diseases and malaria23 (19%)
 Other communicable, maternal, neonatal and nutritional disorders22 (18%)
Non-communicable diseases (n=81; 39%)
Frequency missing=1
 Mental and behavioural disorders23 (28%)
 Cardiovascular and circulatory diseases4 (5%)
 Diabetes, urogenital, blood and endocrine diseases6 (8%)
 Neoplasms47 (59%)
Inclusion of implementation costs (n=207)120 (58%)
Specific components included
 Infrastructure46 (22%)
 Administrative83 (40%)
 Salary72 (35%)
 Other31 (15%)
  • *Ratios can encompass more than one region (16 ratios target multiple countries). Therefore, the counts will add to greater than 100%.

  • GBD, Global Burden of Disease; LMIC, low and middle-income country.