Table 1

Maternal and newborn infant characteristics stratified by postsecond day neonatal survival in the development set*

Development set (n=14 944)
Alive (n=14 752)Dead (n=192)P value
Age at positive urine test, years
 Multigravidae10 43870.811258.3<0.001
Maternal BMI, kg/m2
Living standards index†
 At/below median733649.712364.1<0.001
 Above median739450.16935.9
Education level
 Class 1–42215153317.2
 Class 5–9749650.88343.2
 Class ≥108035.473.6
Betel nut chewing‡
 Did not chew452430.76031.20.762
 Chewed betel nut10 18869.113268.8
Tobacco chewing‡
 Did not chew12 99888.117390.10.521
 Tobacco chewing171311.6189.4
Husband smoking‡
 Did not smoke510934.67137.00.582
 Husband smoking95926512163.0
Experienced prior stillbirth§
 No prior stillbirth954191.69786.60.172
 ≥1 previous stillbirth8798.41513.4
Experienced prior abortion§
 No prior abortion923288.69988.40.992
 ≥1 prior abortion118811.41311.6
Experienced prior miscarriage§
 No prior miscarriage9275899887.50.874
 ≥1 prior miscarriage1145111412.5
Experienced prior infant death§
 No prior infant death772274.16558.00.001
 ≥1 prior infant death222221.33833.9
Location of delivery¶
 Home13 74393.218395.3
Infant sex¶
Gestational age at birth, weeks
 Mean (SD)38.8 (2.86)36.2 (4.19)<0.001
 ≥3711 42477.48544.3<0.001
Birth weight, kg¶
 Mean (SD)2.57 (0.40)2.04 (0.58)<0.001
 Absent14 39697.618395.30.034
 Absent14 43997.918093.8<0.001
Trouble suckling
 Absent13 43891.112866.7<0.001
  • *Data are n, % unless otherwise specified.

  • †Median living standards index for combined development and validation sets: –0.2596556.

  • ‡Tobacco exposures measured with respect to the week preceding interview at enrolment.

  • §Data ascertained from pregnancy enrolment among women reporting a previous pregnancy. In the development set, 10 533 infants were born to mothers in multigravidae, 10 421 remained alive, 112 died.

  • ¶Data ascertained from infant birth assessment or maternal birth assessment.

  • BMI, body mass index.