Table 4

Effect of WASH and IYCF inventories on early child development at 24 months among HIV-exposed uninfected children

Primary continuous outcomesEffects by each randomised arm compared with the SOC arm
Treatment groupNMean (SD)Unadjusted difference between means (95% CI)P value
MDAT total scoreSOC6390.7 (8.1)0.0 (ref)
IYCF6391.8 (8.6)1.26 (–1.40 to 3.91)0.353
WASH7989.6 (9.2)−0.81 (–3.30 to 1.68)0.525
IYCF+WASH9595.5 (9.0)5.70 (3.00 to 8.39)<0.001
MDAT gross motorSOC6323.0 (2.6)0.0 (ref)
IYCF6323.5 (2.8)0.51 (–0.40 to 1.41)0.271
WASH7922.7 (3.3)−0.27 (–1.06 to 0.52)0.500
IYCF+WASH9524.2 (3.3)1.21 (0.37 to 2.06)0.005
MDAT fine motorSOC6322.9 (2.4)0.0 (ref)
IYCF6322.7 (3.5)−0.24 (–1.33 to 0.85)0.662
WASH7922.9 (2.7)−0.03 (–0.80 to 0.75)0.946
IYCF+WASH9523.8 (2.6)0.88 (0.11 to 1.65)0.024
MDAT languageSOC6320.7 (3.8)0.0 (ref)
IYCF6321.0 (4.1)0.29 (–1.03 to 1.61)0.669
WASH7920.1 (3.9)−0.64 (–1.80 to 0.53)0.284
IYCF+WASH9522.4 (4.0)1.78 (0.45 to 3.11)0.009
MDAT socialSOC6324.1 (2.1)0.0 (ref)
IYCF6324.7 (2.2)0.55 (0.00 to 1.09)0.050
WASH7924.0 (2.4)−0.04 (–0.65 to 0.57)0.896
IYCF+WASH9525.1 (2.2)1.08 (0.56 to 1.60)<0.001
MacArthur Bates (CDI)SOC6356.9 (18.3)0.0 (ref)
IYCF6258.4 (20.7)1.70 (–4.84 to 8.24)0.610
WASH7558.4 (18.9)1.65 (–3.57 to 6.87)0.535
IYCF+WASH9166.0 (15.9)9.36 (4.62 to 14.10)<0.001
Effects comparing WASH versus non-WASH and IYCF versus non-IYCF
Effects comparing WASH versus non-WASH and IYCF versus non-IYCF
Treatment groupNMean (SD)Treatment groupNMean (SD)Unadjusted difference between means (95% CI)P value
A not BSOC527.8 (1.3)IYCF: no1247.8 (1.4)0.0 (ref)
IYCF597.6 (1.3)IYCF: yes1457.7 (1.3)−0.11 (–0.43 to 0.22)0.529
WASH727.8 (1.5)WASH: no1117.7 (1.3)0.0 (ref)
IYCF+WASH867.7 (1.3)WASH: yes1587.8 (1.4)0.03 (–0.30 to 0.35)0.878
Primary dichotomous outcomesTreatment groupNn (%)Treatment groupNn (%)Unadjusted relative risk (95% CI)P value
Self-control task (hidden)SOC5916 (27.1%)IYCF: no13747 (34.3%)1.00 (ref)
IYCF6324 (38.1%)IYCF: yes15753 (33.8%)1.07 (0.77 to 1.49)0.698
WASH7831 (39.7%)WASH: no12240 (32.8%)1.00 (ref)
IYCF+WASH9429 (30.9%)WASH: yes17260 (34.9%)0.97 (0.71 to 1.32)0.839
Self-control task (unhidden)SOC5827 (46.6%)IYCF: no13574 (54.8%)1.00 (ref)
IYCF6334 (54.0%)IYCF: yes15583 (53.5%)0.94 (0.77 to 1.15)0.563
WASH7747 (61.0%)WASH: no12161 (50.4%)1.00 (ref)
IYCF+WASH9249 (53.3%)WASH: yes16996 (56.8%)1.14 (0.92 to 1.41)0.219
Secondary dichotomous language outcomesEffects by each randomised arm compared with the SOC ARM
Treatment groupNUnadjusted Relative Risk (95% CI)P value
Uses pluralsSOC631.00 (ref)
IYCF631.87 (0.85 to 4.12)0.118
WASH791.14 (0.48 to 2.68)0.764
IYCF+WASH952.18 (1.03 to 4.60)0.041
Combines two wordsSOC631.00 (ref)
IYCF631.00 (0.94 to 1.06)0.990
WASH791.02 (0.97 to 1.07)0.446
IYCF+WASH95*
Uses imperativesSOC631.00 (ref)
IYCF630.96 (0.80 to 1.15)0.645
WASH790.93 (0.80 to 1.09)0.387
IYCF+WASH951.01 (0.87 to 1.17)0.869
  • *All the children in the IYCF+WASH arm combined two words.

  • CDI, Communicative Development Inventories; IYCF, infant and young child feeding; MDAT, Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool;SOC, standard-of-care; WASH, water, sanitation and hygiene.