Table 2

Intervention delivery and participant uptake by treatment group

Delivery of hardware, commodities and behavioural change modules*Data sourceSOC†IYCF†WASH†IYCF plus WASH†Combined WASH arms‡Combined non-WASH arms‡P valueCombined IYCF arms§Combined non-IYCF arms§P value
Children with 24-month outcomes (on whom inferences are based), nTrial logs666683103186132169149
WASH supplies
 SHINE-installed ventilated improved pit latrineTrial logsN/AN/A83/83 (100.0%)101/103 (98.1%)184/186 (98.9%)N/AN/AN/A
 Two hand-washing stations (Tippy Taps) deliveredTrial logsN/AN/A83/83 (100.0%)103/103 (100.0%)186/186 (100.0%)N/AN/AN/A
 Baby mat deliveredTrial logsN/AN/A81/83 (97.6%)103/103 (100.0%)184/186 (98.9%)N/AN/AN/A
 Play yard deliveredTrial logsN/AN/A80/83 (96.4%)103/103 (100.0%)183/186 (98.4%)N/AN/AN/A
 Median liquid soap deliveries (IQR) (max=20)Trial logsN/AN/A20 (19–20)20 (20–20)20 (19–20)N/AN/AN/A
 Received at least 16 (80% of expected) soap deliveriesTrial logsN/AN/A76/83 (91.6%)98/103 (95.2%)174/186 (93.6%)N/AN/AN/A
 Water Guard deliveries, median (IQR) (max=15)Trial logsN/AN/A15 (15–15)15 (15–15)15 (15–15)N/AN/AN/A
 Received at least 12 (80% of expected) Water Guard deliveriesTrial logsN/AN/A76/83 (91.6%)96/103 (93.2%)172/186 (92.5%)N/AN/AN/A
IYCF supplies
 Median SQ-LNS deliveries (IQR) (max=13)Trial logsN/A13 (13; 13)N/A13 (13; 13)N/AN/A13 (13; 13)N/A
 Received at least 12 (80% of expected) SQ-LNS deliveriesTrial logsN/A58/66 (89.2%)N/A95/103 (92.2%)N/AN/A153/169 (90.5%)N/A
Behavioural change modules
 Median intervention modules (IQR), (max=15)VHW report15 (13–15)15 (14–15)15 (14–15)15 (15–15)15 (14–15)15 (14–15)0.24915 (15–15)15 (14–15)0.016
 Completed intervention modules (% due)VHW report1105/1239 (89.2%)1566/1629 (96.1%)2006/2140 (93.7%)2985/3080 (96.9%)4991/5220 (95.6%)2671/2868 (93.1%)0.2564551/4709 (96.6%)3111/3379 (92.1%)0.020
Participant uptake of promoted behaviours at 12-month visit
Mothers with 12 and 24 months outcomesTrial logs60607495169120155134
Children with 12 and 24 months outcomesTrial logs60617697173121158136
WASH behaviours
 Household members who practise open defecationMaternal report112/196 (57.1%)101/231 (43.7%)2/311
(0.6%)
0/416
(0.0%)
2/727 (0.3%)213/427 (49.9%)<0.001N/AN/A
 Any latrine at householdObservation11/60 (18.3%)26/60 (43.3%)75/75 (100.0%)92/92 (100.0%)167/167 (100.0%)37/120 (30.8%)<0.001N/AN/A
 Improved latrine at householdObservation11/60 (18.3%)16/60 (26.7%)75/75 (100.0%)92/92 (100.0%)169/169 (100.0%)27/120 (22.5%)<0.001N/AN/A
 Improved latrine at household with well-trodden path, not used for storage, and not shared with other householdsObservation and maternal report9/60 (15.0%)13/60 (21.7%)66/75 (88.0%)78/92
(84.8%)
144/167 (86.2%)22/120 (18.3%)<0.001N/AN/A
 Hand-washing station at householdObservation2/55
(3.6%)
3/59
(5.1%)
75/75 (100.0%)93/94
(98.9%)
168/169 (99.4%)5/114 (4.4%)<0.001N/AN/A
 Hand-washing station with water and rubbing agent at householdObservation1/54
(1.9%)
0/57
(0.0%)
62/72 (86.1%)69/82
(84.2%)
131/154 (85.1%)1/111 (0.9%)<0.001N/AN/A
 Ever treats drinking water to make it saferMaternal report6/60 (10.0%)12/60 (20.0%)63/75
(84.0%)
83/93
(89.3%)
145/167 (86.9%)18/120 (15.0%)<0.001N/AN/A
 Disposes rinse water from cleaning infant nappies with faeces in a latrineMaternal report9/160 (15.0%)20/59 (33.9%)58/76
(76.3%)
68/88
(77.3%)
126/164
(76.8%)
29/119
(24.4%)
<0.001N/AN/A
 Play space is visibly cleanObservationN/AN/A66/71
(93.0%)
84/92
(91.3%)
150/163
(92.0%)
N/AN/AN/AN/A
 Child ever observed to eat soilMaternal report40/60
(66.7%)
40/61
(65.6%)
26/73
(35.6%)
19/93
(20.4%)
45/166
(27.1%)
80/121
(66.1%)
<0.001N/AN/A
 Child ever observed to eat chicken faecesMaternal report8/60
(13.3%)
8/61
(13.1%)
3/73
(4.1%)
3/92
(3.3%)
6/165
(3.6%)
16/121
(13.2%)
0.005N/AN/A
IYCF behaviours
 Child is still breast feedingMaternal report51/60
(85.0%)
56/61
(91.8%)
69/75
(92.0%)
87/94
(92.6%)
N/AN/A143/155
(92.3%)
120/135
(88.9%)
0.338
 Mother reports correct ways to feed child during and after illnessMaternal report44/59
(74.6%)
45/61
(73.8%)
52/75
(69.3%)
71/93
(76.3%)
N/AN/A116/154
(75.3%)
96/134
(71.6%)
0.463
 Infant diet met minimum dietary diversity in past 24 hoursMaternal report35/60
(58.3%)
40/61
(65.6%)
32/71
(45.1%)
61/90
(67.8%)
N/AN/A101/151
(66.9%)
67/131
(51.2%)
0.010
 Infant consumed iron-rich food in the past 24 hoursMaternal report38/60
(63.3%)
61/61
(100.0%)
33/73
(45.2%)
88/93
(94.6%)
N/AN/A149/154
(96.8%)
71/133
(53.4%)
<0.001
 Infant consumed animal-source food in the past 24 hoursMaternal report44/60
(73.3%)
47/61
(77.1%)
41/74
(55.4%)
67/91
(73.6%)
N/AN/A114/152
(75.0%)
85/134
(63.4%)
0.031
 Infant consumed vitamin A-rich food in the past 24 hoursMaternal report36/60
(60.0%)
48/61
(78.7%)
55/75
(73.3%)
75/93
(80.7%)
N/AN/A123/154
(79.9%)
91/135
(67.4%)
0.018
 SQ-LNS consumed in previous 24 hoursMaternal reportN/A59/61
(96.7%)
N/A78/91
(85.7%)
N/AN/A137/152
(90.1%)
N/AN/A
  • P values were adjusted for clustering effect; depending on the variable type, XTGEE, multinomial and ordinal logistic regression models with robust variance estimation, and Somers’ D for medians, were used for comparing arms accounting for within-cluster correlation.

  • *Data are n/N (%), unless otherwise indicated.

  • †Combined WASH collapses the two WASH-containing arms (WASH and WASH +IYCF); non-WASH collapses the two arms not including WASH (SOC and IYCF).

  • ‡Combined IYCF collapses the two IYCF-containing arms (IYCF and WASH +IYCF); non-IYCF collapses the two arms not including IYCF (SOC and WASH).

  • .IYCF, infant and young child feeding; N/A, not applicable; N/A, Not Applicable; SHINE, Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy; SOC, standard-of-care; SQ-LNS, small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement; WASH, water, sanitation and hygiene; XTGEE, Generalised Estimating Equation.