Table 1

Maternal, household and infant baseline characteristics of HIV-positive mothers and their liveborn infants in the early child development substudy

Baseline characteristics*Standard-of-careIYCFWASHIYCF+WASH
 Mothers686781102
 Infants686883104
 Mothers completing baseline visit676580101
 Household characteristics
 Median no of occupants (IQR)5 (3–6)4 (3–6)5 (3–6)4 (3–6)
Wealth quintile:†
 1 (lowest)16/68 (23.5%)14/67 (20.9%)20/81 (24.7%)28/102 (27.5%)
 216/68 (23.5%)13/67 (19.4%)15/81 (18.5%)19/102 (18.6%)
 312/68 (17.7%)13/67 (19.4%)19/81 (23.5%)17/102 (16.7%)
 48/68 (11.8%)17/67 (25.4%)11/81 (13.6%)17/102 (16.7%)
 5 (highest)14/68 (20.6%)8/67 (11.9%)13/81 (16.1%)19/102 (18.6%)
Electricity
 Connected to power grid3/66 (4.6%)3/65 (4.6%)0/78 (0.0%)3/100 (4.0%)
 Other power source
 Use a generator2/66 (3.0%)3/65 (4.6%)0/78 (0.0%)3/100 (3.0%)
 Use solar power45/66 (68.2%)44/65 (67.7%)56/78 (71.8%)64/100 (64.0%)
 No electricity19/66 (28.8%)18/65 (27.7%)22/78 (28.2%)33/100 (33.0%)
Sanitation
 Household members defecate in the open177/302 (58.6%)151/282 (53.6%)182/337 (54.0%)196/426 (46.0%)
 Any latrine at household18/66 (27.3%)28/62 (45.2%)29/77 (37.7%)37/96 (38.5%)
 Improved latrine at household17/66 (25.8%)24/62 (38.7%)25/77 (32.5%)36/96 (37.5%)
 Improved latrine with well-trodden path and not shared with other households and not used for storage12/64 (18.8%)28/60 (31.7%)29/76 (27.6%)23/94 (24.5%)
Water
 Main source of household drinking water is improved41/66 (62.1%)36/62 (58.1%)44/77 (57.1%)59/96 (61.5%)
 Treat drinking water to make it safer13/64 (20.3%)11/62 (17.7%)10/77 (13.0%)13/96 (13.5%)
 Median one-way walk time to fetch water (IQR); min10 (5–20)9 (3–15)10 (5–15)9 (5–20)
 Mean water volume collected per person in past 24 hours (SD); L8.7 (4.6)9.4 (6.7)9.1 (6.7)10.3 (8.2)
Hygiene
 Hand-washing station at household3/54 (5.6%)4/62 (6.5%)11/74 (14.9%)15/91 (16.5%)
 Hand-washing station with water and rubbing agent0/54 (0.0%)0/60 (0.0%)0/74 (0.0%)1/91 (1.1%)
 Improved floor‡31/65 (47.7%)35/65 (53.9%)35/77 (45.5%)48/98 (49.0%)
 Median no of chickens (IQR)4 (1–8)6 (2–10.5)5 (3–8)4 (1–8)
 Livestock observed inside home28/66 (42.4%)19/67 (28.4%)34/79 (43.0%)33/99 (33.3%)
 Faeces observed in yard25/65 (38.5%)18/66 (27.3%)27/78 (34.6%)17/98 (17.4%)
Diet quality and food security
 Household meets minimum dietary diversity§21/55 (38.2%)22/57 (38.6%)24/74 (32.9%)37/83 (44.6%)
 Median Coping Strategies Index score¶ (IQR)4 (0–9.5)2 (0–15)3 (0–11)1 (0–9)
Maternal characteristics
 Mean age (SD), years30.8 (5.7)30.9 (7.2)30.4 (5.7)30.9 (5.8)
 Mean height (SD), cm161.3 (7.8)160.3 (6.4)160.5 (5.3)159 (6.6)
 Mean mid-upper arm circumference (SD), cm26.8 (3.4)26.3 (3.6)26.4 (2.2)26.5 (2.8)
 Positive microscopy for Schistosoma haematobium6/67 (9.0%)4/65 (6.2%)12/78 (15.4%)9/101 (8.9%)
 Mean years of completed schooling (SD)9.5 (1.8)9.1 (2.1)8.7 (2.2)9.3 (2.1)
 Median parity (IQR)3 (1–3)2 (1–3)3 (2–4)2 (1–3)
 Married61/64 (95.3%)59/63 (93.7%)71/73 (97.3%)85/92 (92.4%)
 Employed5/65 (7.7%)5/65 (7.7%)8/78 (10.3%)8/100 (8.0%)
 Religion
 Apostolic34/63 (54.0%)32/63 (50.8%)34/74 (46.0%)46/93 (49.5%)
 Other christian religions25/63 (39.7%)25/63 (39.7%)30/74 (40.5%)41/93 (44.1%)
 Other4/63 (6.4%)6/63 (9.5%)10/74 (13.5%)6/93 (6.5%)
 HIV disease severity and treatment
 Mean CD4 count in pregnancy (SD)**, cells/µL474 (180)478 (186)421 (187)470 (217)
 Antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy††60/68 (88.2%)60/67 (89.6%)65/81 (80.3%)90/102 (88.2%)
 Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis during pregnancy‡‡40/68 (58.8%)42/67 (62.7%)55/81 (67.9%)63/102 (61.8%)
 Infant characteristics
 Female33/68 (48.5%)32/63 (47.1%)39/83 (47.0%)55/104 (52.9%)
 Mean birth weight (SD), kg3.03 (0.45)2.94 (0.49)3.07 (0.66)3.02 (0.50)
 Low birth weight <2500 g8/68 (11.8%)10/68 (14.7%)6/83 (7.2%)11/104 (10.6%)
 Institutional delivery59/64 (92.2%)55/66 (83.3%)67/79 (84.8%)85/92 (92.4%)
 Vaginal delivery62/66 (93.9%)57/62 (87.7%)76/80 (95.0%)90/98 (91.8%)
  • *Baseline variables presented for mothers who had live births; maternal and household data were collected about 2 weeks after consent (~14 weeks gestation); this gap created opportunity for lost to follow-up between consent and baseline, thus the number of mothers completing the baseline visit is fewer than the number of mothers with live births. Baseline for infants was at birth. Values are %, unless noted. For variables where (n) is not stated, <3% of data are missing based on number of baseline visits completed.

  • †Chasekwa et al.23

  • ‡Improved floor defined as concrete, brick, cement or tile. Unimproved floor defined as mud, earth, sand or dung.

  • §FAO, FHI 360. Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women: A Guide for Measurement. Rome: FAO. 2016.

  • ¶Maxwell et al.24

  • **CD4 count at baseline visit, or at 32 gestational week visit if no baseline result.

  • ††Includes any exposure to antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy; Includes anydocumented exposure to anti-retroviral therapy during pregnancy.

  • ‡‡Includes any exposure to co-trimoxazole during pregnancy; Includes any documented exposure to co-trimoxazole during pregnancy.

  • IYCF, infant and young child feeding; WASH, water, sanitation and hygiene.