Table 2

Annual cost of physician emigration, by WHO region and World Bank income group

Total annual cost (million US$)% of gross national incomeCost per physician per year (thousand US$)
WHO regions
 Africa6425 (1572 to 15 414)0.370% (0.091% to 0.888%)293 (71 to 740)
 Americas1079 (216 to 2631)0.020% (0.004% to 0.050%)30 (6 to 78)
 Eastern Mediterranean3468 (610 to 8490)0.205% (0.036% to 0.503%)76 (13 to 194)
 Europe434 (75 to 1070)0.013% (0.002% to 0.031%)10 (2 to 26)
 Southeast Asia3804 (780 to 9042)0.102% (0.021% to 0.243%)49 (10 to 121)
 Western Pacific645 (132 to 1598)0.005% (0.001% to 0.014%)34 (7 to 86)
WB income groups
 Low income936 (233 to 2213)0.258% (0.064% to 0.609%)208 (51 to 530)
 Lower middle income10 582 (2352 to 25 350)0.181% (0.040% to 0.434%)82 (18 to 205)
 Upper middle income4337 (798 to 10 682)0.020% (0.004% to 0.050%)41 (7 to 105)
Total15 855 (3384 to 38 245)0.057% (0.012% to 0.138%)66 (14 to 166)
  • Median (95% CI).

  • WB, World Bank.