Table 1

Characteristics of studied low and middle-income countries, by WHO region and World Bank income group

nGNI per capita PPPPopulationPhysiciansPhysicians abroad (percentage of physicians trained in region)
WHO region
 Africa453803976 754 579189 15724 166 (11.3)
 Americas2313 869605 000 4881 110 36139 421 (3.4)
 Eastern Mediterranean128095560 768 323552 43449 484 (8.2)
 Europe2016 888409 541 0871 161 35145 596 (3.8)
 Southeast Asia1063571 903 375 2051 064 19980 437 (7.0)
 Western Pacific1512 7371 629 169 2482 267 50120 350 (0.9)
World Bank income group
 Low income281509589 565 83241 7995204 (11.07)
 Lower middle income4859842 901 804 5302 054 239137 976 (6.29)
 Upper middle income4914 7142 593 238 5684 248 965116 274 (2.66)
Total12592716 084 608 9306 345 003259 454 (3.93)
  • GNI, gross national income; PPP, purchasing power parity.