Table 2

Comparison of JEE and outbreak review in Ethiopia

JEE domain/indicatorJEE scoreMajor JEE recommendationOutbreak response capacityDegree of correspondance
IHR Coordination P.2.13Coordination mechanisms planned to be established but not yet in place across sectorsCoordination between health and water authorities was weak.M H H
National Lab System D.1.14System strong at the national level but poor supply chain and staff turnoverNearly all cases received a clinical diagnosis only; laboratory services were weak. More laboratory specialists were desired but funds to bring internationals were inadequate.L M H
Surveillance D.2.33Plans to develop, national commitment in place and skill but not strong at state levelCase finding and active surveillance to identify clusters of cases was strong.M L M
Workforce D.4.13Need more staff and FETP resident advisor; WHO role keyFETP staff key in regional level coordination.H H H
Preparedness R.1.22Risk assessments done but mapping of resources lackingEquipment, supplies and training not ready for the outbreak.H H H
Emergency Operations Activation R.2.12No manager and lack of permanent staffRegional coordination good; national level was inadequate and frustrating,. Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) not activated until August.H H H
Emergency Operations Function R.2.32No specific training for staffRegional coordination good; national level was inadequate and frustrating,. EOC not activated until August.H H H
Emergency Operations Case Management R.2.42Cholera guidelines existTraining done rapidly for staff when outbreak hit a new area. Guidelines were essential.H H H
Medical Countermeasures R.4.14No warehouse, weak logistics, no established international agreementsRegional Health Bureau led the response to 100 treatment centres, with good WHO support. UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), WHO, Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), Oxford Famine Relief) Oxfam, CDC, Islamic Relief among other non-governmental organisations very involved. Not adequate for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene activities.M M L
Risk Communication R.5.43Dedicated local staff in placeEpi identification of cases was used to tailor social mobilisation and education activities in some areas. Weaker in nomadic areas.H H H
  • CDC, Centers for Disease Control and prevention; FETP, Field Epi Training Programme; JEE, joint external evaluation.