Table 2

Follow-up values of outcome variables in intervention and control clinics

ControlInterventionP valueICC
Individual level outcomesN%N%
Participants with asthma2633100.02437100.0
*Asthma score=0210780.0182374.80.006†0.028
Asthma score=144216.849720.4
Asthma score=2843.21174.8
Asthma score component: spirometry2128.126711.00.0120.017
Asthma score component: start or change of treatment, including:39815.146419.00.0120.020
ICS started1565.91787.30.0670.039
Long-acting beta2-agonist+ICS started632.4853.50.0830.067
Treatment stepped up301.1431.80.0960.074
Treatment stepped down220.8200.80.9320.023
Participants with COPD1181100.01371100.0
*COPD score=095180.5106577.70.1420.036
COPD score=118615.824517.9
COPD score=2443.7614.5
COPD score: spirometry15413.022016.10.0530.034
COPD score: start or change treatment, including:12010.214710.70.6990.013
ICS started615.2654.70.5130.006
Short-acting beta2-agonist514.3624.50.8800.005
Long-acting beta2-agonist+ICS started635.3836.10.4560.018
Participants with asthma or COPD3355100.03311100.0
Cardiovascular disease newly diagnosed1073.21193.60.7050.005
Cardiovascular risk assessed217064.7214164.70.6980.034
Diabetes newly diagnosed662.0962.90.0570.009
Nicotine or buproprion or nortriptyline prescribed1023.01153.50.4190.005
Depression newly diagnosed812.41043.10.2660.020
Antidepressant treatment started1213.61324.00.6070.013
Clinic level asthma score0.3300.1420.3610.1310.456‡Not applicable
Clinic level COPD score0.2810.1750.2930.1500.808‡Not applicable
Clinic level diagnosis and hospital admission ratios§
#New asthma and COPD diagnoses9.‡Not applicable
New asthma diagnoses6.‡Not applicable
New COPD diagnoses3.‡Not applicable
Hospital admissions for asthma or COPD1.‡Not applicable
  • *Primary outcomes.

  • †Ordinal logistic regression model. Logistic regression models for all other individual-level outcomes. All individual-level regression models adjusted for randomisation strata and intra-cluster correlation of outcomes.

  • ‡Linear regression models adjusted for randomisation strata.

  • §No of new diagnoses or hospital admissions: 1000 adults visiting clinic during the year.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ICC, intra-cluster correlation coefficient; ICS, inhaled corticosteroid.