Table 2

Gavi effect on mortality outcomes

Full sample, unweightedFull sample, population weighted†Full sample, controlling for GNI growth and wide set of additional covariates§Full sample, controlling for domestic health public spending and wide set of additional covariates§‡Full sample, controlling for wide set of additional covariates§Subsample with richer Gavi-eligible and poorer Gavi ineligible countries§¶Subsample with higher average baseline measles immunisation rate§††Subsample with baseline measles immunisation rate below 90%§‡‡Extended sample, including late graduate countries§
Panel A: Dependent variable: infant mortality rates (per 1000 live births)
 Gavi eligibility effect−11.92***−15.02***−7.08***−6.29***−6.22***−1.05−7.07***−9.33***−6.69***
 Number of countries8483678282307063101
 Adjusted R-squared0.790.880.820.790.790.800.770.790.80
Panel B: Dependent variable: under-five mortality rates (per 1000 live births)
 Gavi eligibility effect−22.46***−29.99***−14.97***−12.25***−12.23***−5.22−15.14***−17.24***−13.18***
 Number of countries8483678282307063101
 Adjusted R-squared0.760.820.810.790.780.740.750.800.78
 Country fixed effectsYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
 Year fixed effectsYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
 CovariatesYesYes†Wider set plus
GNI growth
Wider set plus domestic spendingWider setWider setWider setWider setWider set
  • Robust SEs in parentheses clustered at the country level.

  • Main data source: World Development Indicators. Sample period: 1995–2016. All regressions include GDP per capita (in log) and population (in log) unless otherwise stated.

  • ***p<0.01, **p<0.05, *p<0.1.

  • †Column 2: Covariates only include PPP-adjusted GDP per capita (in log), weights are equal to birth cohort size in 2000.

  • ‡Column 4: Domestic general government health expenditure as % GDP (WHO Global Health Expenditure Database). No observations available on domestic expenditure prior to 2000. Public expenditure data for 1995–1999 set to 2000 value.

  • §Columns 3 to 9: Additional covariates are: primary school enrolment, secondary school enrolment, urban population (World Development Indicators) and political rights (Freedom House political rights index, available in the QoG standard dataset: January 2017 version).

  • ¶Column 6: Eligible (non-eligible) countries in the bottom (upper) half of the GNI per capita distribution in 2000 excluded.

  • ††Column 7: Countries with average baseline measles immunisation rates below 60% excluded.

  • ‡‡Column 8: Countries with baseline immunisation rate above 90% excluded.

  • GDP, gross domestic product; GNI, gross national income; PPP, purchasing power parity.