Table 1

Gavi effect on immunisation outcomes

Full sample, unweightedFull sample, population weighted†Full sample, controlling for GNI growthFull sample, controlling for domestic health public spending‡Full sample, controlling for wide set of additional covariates§Subsample with richer Gavi-eligible and poorer Gavi ineligible countries¶Subsample with higher average baseline immunisation rate††Subsample with baseline immunisation rate below 90%‡‡Extended sample, including late graduate countries
Panel A: Dependent variable: immunisation rate, DPT (% 12–23 months old)
 Gavi eligibility effect12.02***11.03***12.99***11.91***6.82**13.88***7.21***11.47***9.18***
(2.75)(2.62)(2.80)(2.73)(2.94)(4.03)(2.40)(3.18)(2.61)
 Observations17351714121117121096650122413632134
 Number of countries8483698482315966103
 Adjusted R-squared0.360.590.470.380.360.300.170.430.33
Panel B: Dependent variable: immunisation rate, measles (% 12–23 months old)
 Gavi eligibility effect8.81***11.11***9.44***8.15***4.96*9.76**7.31***8.81**8.09***
(2.63)(2.62)(2.54)(2.55)(2.76)(4.01)(2.42)(3.34)(2.38)
 Observations17351714121117121096650149313422134
 Number of countries8483698482317265103
 Adjusted R-squared0.300.620.440.320.340.190.200.360.28
 Country fixed effectsYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
 Year fixed effectsYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
 CovariatesYesYes†Plus GNI growthPlus domestic spendingWider setYesYesYesYes
  • Robust SEs in parentheses clustered at the country level.

  • Main data source: World Development Indicators. Sample period: 1995–2016. All regressions include GDP per capita (in log) and population (in log) unless otherwise stated.

  • ***p<0.01, **p<0.05, *p<0.1.

  • †Column 2: Covariates only include PPP-adjusted GDP per capita (in log), weights are equal to birth cohort size in 2000.

  • ‡Column 4: Domestic general government health expenditure as % GDP (WHO Global Health Expenditure Database). No observations available on domestic expenditure prior to 2000. Public expenditure data for 1995–1999 set to 2000 value.

  • §Column 5: Additional covariates are: primary school enrolment, secondary school enrolment, urban population (World Development Indicators) and political rights (Freedom House political rights index, available in the QoG standard dataset: January 2017 version).

  • ¶Column 6: Eligible (non-eligible) countries in the bottom (upper) half of the GNI per capita distribution in 2000 excluded.

  • ††Column 7: Countries with average baseline DPT (measles) immunisation rates below 60% (50%) excluded.

  • ‡‡Column 8: Countries with baseline immunisation rate above 90% excluded.

  • DPT, diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus; GDP, gross domestic product; GNI, gross national income; PPP, purchasing power parity.