Table 3

Concurrent correlation of DAZ in children under 48 months with measures from original instruments

CohortAge range (months)% items in D-score from original instrument*Bayley-I, II, III†Other measures
CognitionLanguageMotor
MDIPDITotal ScoreMeasure
Bangladesh180.13 (16/121)0.7970.503
Brazil 15–111 (18/18)0.859Denver-II
11–190.84 (16/19)0.926
Chile 160.67 (31/46)0.8610.438
120.55 (60/109)0.8800.361
180.45 (26/58)0.8350.249
Chile 2‡24–350.53 (33/62)0.768Tepsi
36–470.855
China180.53 (40/76)0.541 –0.458
Colombia 110–260.41 (104/254)0.7100.8090.775
28–450.45 (96/212)0.7420.8400.672
Colombia 26–170.32 (200/631)0.3860.3330.6750.758Denver-II
18–290.6710.8370.6510.642
30–420.6490.8110.6200.795
Ecuador0–110.68 (15/22)0.791Barrera
12–230.815
24–350.768
Ethiopia11–120.48 (73/151)0.6140.5600.915
29–320.46 (83/181)0.7370.8140.808
41–440.42 (61/146)0.6310.7230.696
Jamaica 1150.47 (69/148)0.930Griffiths DQ§
240.44 (68/155)0.862
Jamaica 29–250.44 (94/212)0.574Griffiths DQ§
21–370.33 (66/200)0.888
33-480.29 (52/181)0.864
Madagascar34–420.24 (10/41)0.452SB-5
Netherlands 1¶0–110.57 (4/7) to
1 (13/13)
0.949DDI
12–230.92 (12/13)0.958
24–340.71 (10/14)0.486
South Africa60.48 (80/166)0.7910.7750.868Griffiths DQ§
120.5 (101/202)0.7630.6590.725
240.41 (12/29)0.729Vineland
  • *Not all items from the original instrument were included in the final model. Items from multiple instruments were included in D-score estimation in Colombia 2 and South Africa.

  • †Bayley-I, II, III scores are externally standardised, except for Ethiopia, which is internally age-standardised. Externally standardised scores are cognitive, language and motor composite scores for the Bayley-III; and the MDI and PDI for the Bayley-I and Bayley-II.

  • ‡Excludes children>48 months at Time 1.

  • §Griffiths DQ includes motor development items.

  • ¶Data collection rounds for Netherlands 1 were collapsed into 1 year age increments (0–11 m, 12–23 m, 24–34 m). Range of % items from original instrument used in D-score varies by round, but concurrent correlation is ≥0.9 for all collapsed rounds. 32 months was the maximum age in completed months for the test of predictive validity.

  • Barrera, Barrera Moncada; Bayley-I, II, III, Bayley Scales for Infant and Toddler Development; DDI, Van Wiechenschema, referred to as the Dutch Developmental Instrument; Denver-II, Denver Developmental Screening Test; DQ, Developmental Quotient; D-Score, Developmental Score; Griffiths, Griffiths Mental Development Scales; MDI, Mental Development Index; PDI, Psychomotor Development Index; SB-5, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scales; Tepsi, Test de Desarrollo Psicomotor; Vineland, Vineland Social Maturity Scale.