Table 2

Summary statistics and estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for specified primary and secondary outcomes

OutcomeControl phaseIntervention phaseAdjusted IRR‡
(95% CI)
n* of 1335Crude rate
(ratio†)
n* of 1713Crude rate
(ratio†)
Primary outcomes
 Stillbirths
 Stillbirth rate (per 1000 births)
132624.6
(5529/224 649)
170123.5
(4915/208 934)
0.97
(0.91 to 1.05)
 Newborns
 Early neonatal death rate (per 1000 live births)
13269.3
(2038/219 120)
17019.5
(1933/204 019)
1.04
(0.92 to 1.17)
 Maternal
 Institutional maternal mortality ratio (iMMR) (per 100 000 live births)
131170.9
(154/217 134)
168183.2
(167/200 695)
1.23
(0.80 to 1.90)
 Direct obstetric CFR13080.57%
(124/21 767)
16770.62%
(123/19 691)
1.15
(0.66 to 2.02)
Secondary outcomes
 iMMR for direct maternal deaths only131157.1
(124/217 134)
168161.8
(124/200 695)
1.24
(0.79 to 1.92)
 iMMR for indirect maternal deaths only131113.8
(30/217 134)
168121.4
(43/200 695)
2.17
(0.87 to 5.40)
Obstetric case fatality rate (CFR)
 CFR—all complications (direct and indirect)13080.69%
(154/22 287)
16770.83%
(166/19 902)
1.14
(0.65 to 2.01)
 Indirect obstetric CFR685.8%
(30/520)
7420.4%
(43/211)
1.93
(1.25 to 3.01)
CFR by type of complication
 Haemorrhage§8940.93%
(48/5147)
11110.81%
(43/5281)
0.97
(0.60 to 1.56)
 PPH§6222.0%
(38/1860)
7871.6%
(33/2106)
0.77
(0.39 to 1.54)
 Eclampsia8210.67%
(46/6823)
9130.86%
(43/5011)
2.22
(0.96 to 5.11)
 Postpartum sepsis§¶2084.2%
(24/565)
2415.3%
(29/544)
0.95
(0.38 to 2.34)
 Obstructed labour8260%
(0/9114)
10220%
(0/8643)
n/a
 Ruptured uterus§¶805.9%
(6/101)
1054.1%
(7/170)
0.74
(0.21 to 2.64)
Complication rates
 Any complication130810.1%
(22 287/219 937)
16799.8%
(20 090/205 398)
1.14
(1.02 to 1.27)
 Haemorrhage13052.4%
(5148/218 881)
16602.6%
(5338/203 774)
1.31
(1.13 to 1.52)
 PPH13070.85%
(1863/219 414)
16781.04%
(2133/205 918)
1.27
(0.97 to 1.65)
 Eclampsia13073.1%
(6823/219 414)
16792.5%
(5076/206 380)
0.95
(0.75 to 1.19)
 Postpartum sepsis13050.26
(568/219 232)
16790.27%
(557/205 398)
1.86
(1.17 to 2.95)
 Obstructed labour12974.3%
(9115/213 358)
16744.3%
(8797/204 195)
1.12
(0.98 to 1.27)
 Ruptured uterus13090.05%
(102/220 833)
16830.08%
(171/206 191)
1.19
(0.66 to 2.14)
  • *n indicates the number of facility-month combinations for which any case was recorded, and could thus be included in the analysis.

  • †Unadjusted statistics aggregated across all facilities and months within phase to derive crude incidence rates.

  • ‡Estimates are derived from mixed effects negative binomial models in which month of study, facility type and monthly numbers of births (≤30, 31–160 or >160) were included as fixed effects, with random effects for district and facility, unless indicated otherwise.

  • §Monthly number of births omitted from the analysis to enable estimates to be derived.

  • ¶Facility type and random effect for facility omitted from the analysis to enable estimates to be derived.