Table 1

Samvedana Plus

Individual levelCommunity level
InterventionContentInterventionContent
Ongoing: male and female condoms distributed, violence response and supportGroup sessions/trainings with sex workers facilitated by trained outreach workers; eight participatory reflection modules implemented over 12 sessionsModules included (1) trust building and communication, (2) loving ourselves, (3) understanding relationships, (4) reducing our risks in intimate relationships, (5) understanding IPV, (6) taking action against violence, (7) supporting each other and (8) changing ourselves and changing social norms. Sessions included practical strategies around safety planning, skills building and provision of condoms.Crisis management system: four CMT set up in Mudhol, Rabkavi, Jamkhandi and BalgakoteMonthly meetings of the CMT were held to discuss cases of IPV reported. Participants were given numbers of the CMT to call or linked into the CMT via peer educators or outreach workers. In the case of immediate threat, the CMT provides financial support and refuge to the individual; in less serious cases, the CMT talked to IPs.
Individual counselling with sex workersOutreach workers provided one-to-one counselling to sex workers on request, following the themes discussed in the group session.
Group sessions with IPs facilitated by male outreach workers; eight sessions conducted over 3 daysModules included (1) trust building and communication, (2) loving ourselves, (3) understanding violence, (4) changing ourselves and reducing our risks in intimate relationships, (5) rethinking drinking and (6) changing social norms.
Group work/couple events with sex workers and their IPs; five couple events conductedThese events were for couples who had completed the group sessions but were continuing to experience problems in their relationship. The idea was to reinforce the message of violence and risk-free relationships and to encourage couples to spend positive time with each other. Twenty couples were targeted to attend these events but turn-out was low.Village plays held in 20 intervention villagesThe plays were developed by the community-based organisation and Karnataka Health Promotion Trust based on needs of a specific village but focused on gender discrimination, gender stereotype roles, female foeticide, eve teasing and domestic violence and performed by members of the local community. They were initially piloted to modify the language and the props to improve the quality of play.
Training male champions: 21 male partners trained over three training sessions.The main objective was to equip IPs with the skills, information and confidence to speak publicly about their experiences and to create positive norms that value women and their rights; to increase the knowledge and skills of the champions to effectively influence and strengthen the potential of other IPs to advocate for gender equality and treat women with dignity and respect.
  • CMT, crisis management team; IP, intimate partner; IPV, intimate partner violence.