Table 2

Baseline characteristics of sex workers and trial outcomes by trial arm

All clustersInterventionControlMean differenceP valueStandardised difference
Individual-level summaryn (%) or mean (SD)n (%) or mean (SD)n (%) or mean (SD)
N620328292
Study design
 Village population size3942.6 (2511.0)4121.9 (2694.3)3755.5 (2350.1)−366.390.6224−0.14
 Sex worker population size17.0 (14.1)17.2 (13.7)16.9 (14.8)−0.300.94320.02 (0.10)
Characteristics
 Age (years)34.5 (7.3)33.9 (7.0)35.2 (7.6)1.360.02080.19
 Literacy (Illiterate/literate)63 (10.2%)35 (10.7%)28 (9.65%)−1.080.6570−0.04
 Number of children2.0 (1.2)2.0 (1.2)1.9 (1.3)0.070.47060.06
 Income other than sex work510 (82.3%)266 (81.1%)244 (83.6%)2.460.42360.06
 Overall income (all sources)4905.8 (2621.3)4831.6 (2949.1)4989.0 (2199.0)157.410.45700.06
 Duration of sex work (years)19.3 (7.8)18.8 (7.6)20.0 (8.0)1.140.06890.15
 Duration of relationship with IP (years)12.4 (7.4)11.8 (7.1)13.1 (7.7)1.280.03150.17
 Place of solicitation
 Home471 (77.3%)243 (75.9%)228 (78.9%)2.960.38520.07
 Public places89 (14.6%)45 (14.1%)44 (15.2%)1.160.68570.03
 Phone/others49 (8.0%)32 (10.0%)17 (5.9%)−4.120.0623−0.15
 Number of sex work clients in a typical week2.7 (2.7)2.7 (2.4)2.7 (3.0)0.010.98090.00
 Number of IPs
 One IP601 (96.9%)322 (98.2%)279 (95.5%)−2.620.0587−0.15
 More than one IP7 (1.1%)1 (0.3%)6 (2.1%)1.750.03960.17
 No current IP12 (1.9%)5 (1.5%)7 (2.4%)0.870.43180.06
 IP caste
 SC/ST235 (38.9%)130 (41.0%)105 (36.6%)−4.420.2662−0.09
 Others369 (61.1%)187 (59.0%)182 (63.4%)4.420.26620.09
 IP age difference
 IP younger or same age40 (6.5%)16 (4.9%)24 (8.3%)3.400.08850.14
 IP 1–4 years older169 (27.5%)98 (30.1%)71 (24.6%)−5.490.1281−0.12
 IP 5–8 years older262 (42.6%)143 (43.9%)119 (41.2%)−2.690.5018−0.05
 IP 9+ years older144 (23.4%)69 (21.2%)75 (26.0%)4.790.16240.11
 Frequency of visit by IP
 Daily/weekly401 (65.2%)221 (67.6%)180 (62.5%)−5.080.1871−0.11
 Monthly/less often214 (34.8%)106 (32.4%)108 (37.5%)5.080.18710.11
 IP knows sex work status99 (16.0%)64 (19.6%)35 (12.0%)7.600.0101−0.21
 Currently married IP548 (88.7%)288 (88.1%)260 (89.3%)1.270.61870.04
 Membership of community-based organisation379 (61.2%)209 (63.9%)170 (58.2%)5.700.14700.12
Cluster level summary (mean of means)% (SD)% (SD)% (SD)Mean differenceP valueStandardised difference
Number of clusters472423
Any alcohol use by IP*23.4% (14.3)21.4% (14.8)25.5% (13.7)4.120.32830.29
Outcomes†
 Any IPV (physical or sexual violence) in the past 6 months38.0% (24.2)31.4% (22.4)45.0% (24.6)13.560.05390.58
 Severe IPV (physical and/or sexual violence) in the past 6 months28.6% (22.8)23.7% (21.1)33.8% (23.9)10.050.13300.45
 Consistent condom use within the past 30 days42.4% (27.8)38.9% (31.7)46.0% (23.2)7.130.38500.26
 Acceptance of IPV from their IPs57.2% (22.1)59.2% (22.8)55.1% (21.5)−4.140.5259−0.19
 Disclosure of IPV‡49.1% (30.6)46.3% (32.5)52.1% (28.9)5.750.52550.19
 Knowledge of self-protection strategies against IPV6.6% (8.2)6.2% (7.6)7.0% (9.0)0.730.76290.09
 Self-efficacy to negotiate condom use with IP20.0% (19.4)19.9% (17.9)20.0% (21.3)0.150.97900.01
 Solidarity around issues of IPV18.4% (20.2)15.0% (20.0)22.0% (20.3)7.070.23410.35
  • All statistics are n (%) unless otherwise specified.

  • *Mean of cluster-level means of proportion (SD), defined as any frequent alcohol use or alcohol use during sex.

  • †Mean of cluster-level means of proportion (SD) of sex workers by primary and secondary outcomes.

  • ‡Among those who reported experience of any IPV in the last 6 months.

  • IP, intimate partner; IPV, intimate partner violence; SC/ST, Scheduled caste/Scheduled tribe.