Table 1

Study characteristics

StudyCountryModel derivation, external validation or incremental value?OutcomeSettingSample number; total
(n=outcome)
ValidationPredictors includedModel performanceHow is the model presented in paper?
Antwi et al44GhanaDerivationGestational hypertension
Lower-middle income2529 (n=261)ExternalHistory of hypertensionin parents, GH in aprevious pregnancy, diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg), height (cm), weight (kg) and parityC-statistic 0.70 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.74Final model is presented.
Score chart is presented.
Antwi et al23GhanaIncremental valueGestational hypertensionLower-middle income373 (n=25)InternalAdded predictors: PAPP-A and PlGFAUC: 0.95 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.00)
Benjamin et al45IndiaDerivationCephalopelvic disproportionLower-middle income249 (n=27)NoneFoot length, intertrochanteric diameter and estimated fetal weightPositive predictive value 34.0Final model predictors are presented.
Score chart or final model with assigned weights is not presented.
de Oliveira et al18BrazilDerivationSpontaneous preterm labourUpper-middle income70 (n=23)InternalAge, skin colour, educational level, family income, parity, number of preterm deliveries, gestational age at the examination, cervical length and cervical glandular areaAUC: 0.91 (sensitivity 88%, specificity 93%)Final model predictors are presented.
Score chart or final model with assigned weights is not presented.
Geelhoed et al46GhanaDerivationAnaemia in pregnancyLower-middle income327 (n=175)NoneNumber of antenatal visits and lowest Hb (g/dL)Explanation of 25% of the variability in the Hb prior to childbirth among women with severe anaemiaFinal model is presented and how to incorporate the model is explained.
Harutyunyan et al47ArmeniaDerivationPre-eclampsia in multiparous womenLower-middle income184 (n=36)NoneInterbirth interval, time to pregnancy, BMI, barrier methods of contraception and household monthly incomeHosmer-Lemeshow test: 5.0 (df=8, p>χ2=0.76)Final model predictors are presented.
Score chart or final model with assigned weights is not presented.
Hoirisch- Clapauch and Benchimol-Barbosa48BrazilDerivationPre-eclampsiaUpper-middle income238 (n=79)InternalOligomenorrhoea, weight accrual rate >0.8 kg/year, triglyceridemia and elevated acanthosis nigricans in the neckC-statistic 0.81 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.84) (sensitivity 73%, specificity 85%)Final model predictors are presented.
Score chart or final model with assigned weights is not presented.
Kayode et al49NigeriaDerivationStillbirthLower-middle income6956 (n=443)InternalMaternal comorbidity, place of residence, maternal occupation, parity, bleeding in pregnancy and fetal presentationC-statistic: 0.80 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.83)Final model is presented.
Score chart is not presented.
Kumar et al50IndiaDerivationGestational hypertensionLower-middle income2190 (n=198)NoneBMI, mean arterial pressure, early diastolic uterine artery notch on the left side, PAPP-A MoM, free β-hCG MoMAUC: 0.810 (95% CI 0.746 to 0.875)Final model is presented.
Score chart is not presented.
Nascimento et al40BrazilDerivationNeonatal deathUpper-middle income1351 (n=58)InternalBirth weight, gestational age, Apgar score and previous report of stillbirthAUC: 0.90 (95% CI 0.84 to 0.96)Final model with examples is presented.
Payne et al19Fiji, Uganda, South Africa, Brazil and PakistanDerivationGestational hypertension-related complicationsUpper-middle income, lower-middle income and low income2081 (n=261)Internal and externalMultiparity, gestational age at admission, systolic blood pressure, 2+, 3+ and 4+ dipstick proteinuria, vaginal bleeding with abdominal pain, headache and/or visual changes and chest pain and/or dyspnoeaAUC: 0.768 (95% CI 0.735 to 0.801)Final model is presented.
Score chart is not presented.
Payne et al20Fiji, Uganda, South Africa, Brazil and PakistanDerivationStillbirth and neonatal deathsUpper-middle income, lower-middle income and low income1688 (n=110)InternalMaternal age, indicator for presence of one symptom, indicator for presence of two or more symptoms, indicator for dipstick proteinuria of 2+ or 3+, indicator for dipstick proteinuria of 4+AUC: 0.75 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.80)Final model is presented.
Score chart is not represented.
Payne et al21Fiji, Uganda, South Africa, Brazil and PakistanIncremental valueGestational hypertension-related complicationsUpper-middle income, lower-middle income and low income852 (n=119)NoneAdded predictors:
SpO2
AUC: 0.71 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.77)Final model represented
Score chart is not presented.
Phaloprakarn et al51ThailandDerivationGestational diabetesUpper-middle income1876 (n=586)ExternalAge, BMI, family history of diabetes, prior macrosomia and history of >2 abortionsAUC: 0.77 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.79)Score chart is presented.
Prata et al52EgyptDerivationPostpartum haemorrhageLower-middle income2510 (n=93)NoneElevated number of antenatal care visits, history of postpartum haemorrhage, anaemia, labour augmentation, retained placenta, length of first and second stage4+ risk factors: sensitivity 14.79% and specificity 98.92%. Likelihood ratio 12.76Final model is not presented.
Number of risk factors with prognostic values presented.
Romero-Gutiérrez et al53MexicoDerivationStillbirthUpper-middle income753 (n=753)NoneMaternal age, antenatal care and umbilical cord complicationR2: 0.28 (p<0.001)Final model is presented.
Score chart is not presented.
Sekizawa et al54IndonesiaDerivationPre-eclampsiaLower-middle income660 (n=62)NoneEndoglin, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, placental growth factor and parityAUC: 0.88 (95% CI 0.84 to 0.92)Final model predictors are presented.
Score chart or final model with assigned weights is not presented.
Tsu55ZimbabweDerivationPostpartum haemorrhageLow income653 (n=151)NoneAge 35+ years, low parity (0, 1), poor obstetric outcome last pregnancy, antenatal Hb <12 g/dL, antenatal hospitalisation for pregnancy-related problemSensitivity 80%, sensitivity 50%Final score system presented.
Ukah et al22Fiji, Uganda, South Africa, Brazil and PakistanExternal validationGestational hypertension-related complicationsUpper-middle income, lower-middle income and low income2081 (n=261)ExternalGestational age, chest pain or dyspnoea, oxygen saturation, platelet count, serum creatinine and serum aspartate aminotransferaseAUC: 0.77 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.82)Final model is presented.
Score chart is not presented.
Zhou et al56ChinaDerivationPre-eclampsiaUpper-middle income1000 (n=61)NoneHDLc, uric acid and triglyceridesAUC: 0.77 (sensitivity 92%, specificity 50%)Final model predictors are presented.
Score chart or final model with assigned weights is not presented.
Zhou et al56ChinaDerivationGestational diabetesUpper-middle income1000 (n=100)NoneHDLc, uric acid and triglyceridesAUC: 0.71 (sensitivity 80%, specificity 53%)Final model predictors are presented.
Score chart or final model with assigned weights is not presented.
  • AUC, area under the curve; BMI, body mass index; GH, Gestational Hypertension; Hb, haemoglobin; hCG, human chorionic gonadotropin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; MoM, multiples of the normal median; PAPP-A, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A; PlGF, placental growth factor.