Table 1

Major frameworks for essential public health functions

WHO EURO: Essential Public Health OperationsWHO PAHO: Essential Public Health FunctionsWHO WPRO: Essential Public Health FunctionsWHO EMRO: Essential Public Health FunctionsUS CDC: Essential Public Health ServicesEuropean Commission: Public Health Capacity Dimensions
First version: 1998First version: 2001First version: 2003First version: 2016First version: 1994First version: 2010
Surveillance of population health and well-beingMonitoring, evaluation and analysis of health statusHealth situation monitoring and analysisSurveillance and monitoring of health determinants, risks, morbidity and mortalityMonitor health status to identify and solve community health problemsLeadership and governance
Monitoring and response to health hazards and emergenciesSurveillance, research, and control of the risks and threats to public healthEpidemiological surveillance/disease prevention and controlPreparedness and public health response to disease outbreaks, natural disasters and other emergenciesDiagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the communityOrganisational structures
Health protection including environmental occupation, food safety and others Health promotionDevelopment of policies and planning in public healthHealth protection including management of environmental, food, toxicological and occupational safetyInform, educate and empower people about health issuesFinancial resources
Health promotion including action to address social determinants and health inequitySocial participation in healthStrategic management of health systems and services for population health gainHealth promotion and disease prevention through population and personalised interventions, including action to address social determinants and health inequityMobilise community partnerships and action to identify and solve health problemsWorkforce
Disease prevention, including early detection of illnessDevelopment of policies and institutional capacity for public health planning and managementRegulation and enforcement to protect public healthEffective health governance, public health legislation, financing and institutional structures (stewardship function)Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health effortsPartnerships
Assuring governance for health and well-beingStrengthening of public health regulation and enforcement capacityHuman resources development and planning in public healthSufficient and competent workforce for effective public health deliveryEnforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safetyKnowledge development
Assuring a sufficient and competent public health workforceEvaluation and promotion of equitable access to necessary health servicesHealth promotion, social participation and empowermentCommunication and social mobilisation for healthLink people to needed personal health services and assure the provision of healthcare when otherwise unavailable
Assuring sustainable organisational structures and financingHuman resources development and training in public healthEnsuring the quality of personal and population-based health servicesPublic health research to inform and influence policy and practiceAssure competent public and personal healthcare workforce
Advocacy communication and social mobilisation for healthQuality assurance in personal and population-based health servicesResearch, development and implementation of innovative public health solutionsEvaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services
Advancing public health research to inform policy and practiceResearch in public healthResearch for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems