Table 5

Outcomes measures in studies included in the systematic review

AuthorsTarget populationDirection of effect of findingsTraditional HIV prevention outcomesEmpowerment outcomesInclusion outcomesAgency outcomes
Colchero et al41MSMEffect favours intervention(1) HIV testing, (2) no of sexual partners, (3) awareness of HIV status, (4) HIV positive on treatment, (5) condom use at last sexNone(1) Self-reported perception of stigma and discrimination from healthcare providersNone
Beattie et al37FSWN/A(6) Consistent condom use in the past 6 months(1) Self-efficacy to negotiate condom use and HIV/STI testing, (2) increased disclosure of IPV, (3) decreased acceptance of violence by partner, (4) increased knowledge of self-protection strategies and sources of support for IPV(2) Increased solidarity among FSWs around IPVNone
Buttolph et al47Youth in high-burden settingsN/A(7) Adherence (PrEP and ART), (8) voluntary medical male circumcision, (9) contraceptive use, (10) HIV rapid test (11) HIV knowledgeNone(3) Keeping girls in school (school attendance)None
Chiao et al42Pregnant and postpartum womenEffect favours intervention(12) HIV testing, (13) six-item consistent condom use scale(5) HIV perceived control and severity(4) Social support, employer’s supportive attitude, (5) can talk to employer about condomsNone
Cowan et al38PWIDEffect favours intervention(14) Knowledge of HIV status, (15) reported condomless sex with client in past month, (16) HIV positive on treatment(6) Reporting good relationship with other FSWNoneNone
Fatti et al48FSWEffect favours intervention(17) HIV incidence, (18) HIV testing(7) Receiving support to access social security grantsNoneNone
Firestone et al19MSMEffect favours intervention(19) Condom and lubricant use at last sex, (20) consistent condom use in past 30 days, (21) HIV test in past 12 months, (22) seeking treatment for STI past 12 months(8) Friends’ knowing the respondents’ sexual orientation, (9) being out with friends, (10) participating in gay or TG events, (11) ever visited a gay bar/discoNoneNone
Futterman et al43Pregnant womenEffect favours intervention(23) Adherence to PMTCT practices, (24) HIV knowledge score(12) Emotional functioning, (13) HIV discomfort score, (14) depression scale, (15) COPE Inventory, (16) interaction and bonding score, (17) disclosing status to partner or family member(6) Social support (availability and satisfaction)None
Go et al39MSMEffect favours neither(25) HIV Incidence, (26) direct/indirect sharing of needles, injecting drugs, solution and distilled water in past 3 months, (27) frequency of injecting, (28) unprotected sex in past 3 months, (29) HIV knowledge(18) Depression, (19) HIV status disclosure(7) HIV-related stigma scale, (8) IDU-related stigma scale, (9) social support scale, (10) injecting network sizeNone
Kerrigan et al46FSWN/A(30) HIV incidence, (31) consistent condom use in past 30 days per partner type(20) Gender-based violence experience(11) Experiences of stigma and discrimination, (12) sex work stigma in community, (13) social cohesion, (14) participation in community mobilisationNone
Mergenova et al40FSW, PWIDN/A(32) Biologically confirmed STI and (33) HIV rate, (34) unprotected sexual acts, (35) unsafe injection(21) Condom use self-efficacy, (22) sexual communication skills, (23) savings(15) Perceived stigma, (16) social norms score, (17) social supportNone
Ramakrishnan et al49FSWEffect favours intervention(36) HIV prevalence, (37) consistent condom use with occasional and regular clients, (38) treatment for HIV and STIs, (39) knowledge of HIV transmissionNoneNoneNone
Souverein et al44FSWEffect favours intervention(40) STI incidence rate, (41) condom use at last paid sexNoneNoneNone
USAID36FSW, MSM, TGEffect favours intervention(42) HIV testing, (43) no of sex partners, (44) consistent condom use in last relationship(24) Trust in service/social support networksNone(1)Recognition of unmet rights, (2) participation in political organisations, HIV association, including peer group socialisation, and government
Wirtz et al45MSMEffect favours intervention(45) Condom use at last sex, (46) use of lubricants, (47) casual male partners(25) Disclosure of sexual orientation to family and healthcare providersNoneNone
  • For protocols, we reported outcomes the authors plan to measure in the coming study but have not yet measured.

  • ART, antiretroviral therapy; FSW, female sex workers; IDU, injecting drug users; IPV, intimate partner violence; MSM, men who have sex with men;N/A, not applicable; PMTCT, prevention of mother-to-child transmission; ; PrEP, pre-exposure prophylaxis; PWID, people who inject drugs; STI, sexually transmitted infection;TG, transgender; USAID, United States Agency for International Development.