Table 4

Description of types of intervention components

AuthorsTarget populationBiomedicalBehaviouralStructural
Colchero et al41MSMPrevention kits (condoms, lubricants and prevention information) distributionHIV testing and counselling, peer outreach and education, motivational interviewing and group sessionsStigma and discrimination workshops for public servants (healthcare providers and police officers)
Beattie et al37FSWCondom distribution and 24 hours crisis managementHIV/STI testing and counselling, group reflection workshops and intensive support for FSWs and their partners, development of safety plans, one-on-one session with intimate partners, group reflection sessions for intimate partners, training of intimate partner champions, couple events, couple counselling, training of community-based organisation members, strengthening of crisis management teamsCapacity building workshops for FSW community based organisations to respond to and reduce intimate partner violence (IPV), training prominent local leaders to speak against IPV, leadership building, staging public performances that promote intolerance for IPV, community events
Buttolph et al47Youth in high-burden settingsCondom distribution, voluntary medical male circumcision, family planning and contraception, PrEP delivered through mobile health events, HIV care and treatment as preventionHIV testing and counsellingConditional cash transfers for HIV-negative, in-school females
Chiao et al42FSWRegular health examinations at social hygiene clinic, STI servicesHIV testing and counselling, peer outreach and education, support with relationships between client and sex worker, sexual negotiationManager training on HIV and STI education, relationships between clients and sex workers, sexual negotiation, and social influence role, condom use policy, condom availability at workplace
Cowan et al38FSWCondom distribution, STI services, contraception servicesHIV testing and counselling, peer outreach and education, legal adviceStrengthening support networks, community mobilisation to raise awareness of the benefits of ART and PrEP, building leadership skills
Fatti et al48Pregnant and postpartum womenCondom distributionHIV testing and counselling, individual counselling and education for women and their male partners on alcohol and substance abuse support, mental health referrals and group HIV prevention educationAssessment and counselling and referral for gender-based violence, discussion regarding gender identities and roles, support to access social security grants by patient advocates
Firestone et al19MSMSTI servicesHIV testing and counselling, peer and online outreach and education using integrated behavioural change communicationReferrals to designated service providers for support groups, drug and alcohol treatment, legal support, and violence prevention services; sensitisation training of healthcare providers, media training, and mobilisation of civil society leaders to foster public dialogue on homophobia and discrimination
Futterman et al43Pregnant womenStandard PMTCT careCognitive behavioural intervention by peer mentorsSupport network of trained mentor mothers who were coping well who were trained to provide support through pregnancy and in the weeks following delivery
Go et al39PWIDCondom provisionHIV counselling and testing, partner testing, individual and group counselling on stigma, social support and disclosure, dyad session with ‘person important to me’Community-wide video and HIV education sessions delivered by a trained community mobilizer, standard message via loudspeakers and educational pamphlets
Kerrigan et al46FSWCondom distributionHIV counselling and testing, peer outreach and education, texts to promote awareness, solidarity, and adherenceSensitivity training for healthcare providers, drop-in centre with activities that promote social cohesion and community mobilisation to address stigma, discrimination, violence prevention, and financial insecurity
Mergenova et al40FSW, PWIDHIV and STI treatmentHIV and STI testing, HIV-risk reduction sessions, financial-literacy training, vocational trainingMicrofinance and a matched-savings programme, connection to necessary medical, legal and social assistance
Ramakrishnan et al49FSWCondom distribution, STI servicesHIV testing and counselling, peer outreach and educationCommunity mobilisation for greater ownership among high risk groups
Souverein et al44FSWSTI services, condom use demonstration and distributionHIV and STI testing and treatment, peer educators and outreach, support for alcohol deaddiction and provision of rest placeSaving and credit service, options for alternative and diversified livelihoods, sensitising activities for brothel owners, pimps, and the police; support for group action and a collective of sex worker, provision of relevant legal information
USAID36MSM, FSW, TGCondom use and distribution, STI servicesHIV testing and counselling, peer educators and outreach, interpersonal communication, group sessionsStrengthening institutional capacity of NGOs serving at risk communities and improving participation of NGOs representing MARPs and PLHIV in the HIV/AIDS national response
Wirtz et al45MSMSTI servicesPeer outreach and educationTraining of healthcare providers on risk reduction counselling and equitable service delivery and peer educators to provide epidemiological evidence to support decriminalisation of homosexuality and advocate for great inclusion
  • ART, antiretroviral therapy; FSWs, female sex workers; MARP, most at risk population; MSM, men who have sex with men; NGO, non-governmental organisation; PLHIV, people living with HIV; PMTCT, prevention of mother-to-child transmission; PrEP, pre-exposure prophylaxis; PWID, people who inject drugs; STI, sexually transmitted infection; TG, transgender; USAID, United States Agency for International Development.