Table 6

Relationships between HIV and empowerment outcomes

AuthorsTarget populationTraditional HIV prevention outcomes (outcome 1)Empowerment, inclusion and agency outcomes (outcome 2)Relationship between outcomes 1 and 2 measured or notList of relationships measuredDirection of relationship
Colchero et al41MSM(1) HIV testing, (2) no of sexual partners, (3) awareness of HIV status, (4) HIV positive on treatment, (5) condom use at last sex(1) Self-reported perception of stigma and discrimination from healthcare providersNot measured(NA)(NA)
Beattie et al37FSW(6) Consistent condom use(2) Self-efficacy to negotiate condom use and HIV/STI testing, (3) increased disclosure of IPV, (4) decreased acceptance of violence by partner, (5) increased knowledge of self-protection strategies and sources of support for IPV, (6) Increased solidarity among FSWs around IPV(NA)(NA)(NA)
Buttolph et al47Youth in high-burden settings(7) Adherence (PrEP and ART), (8) voluntary medical male circumcision, (9) condom and contraceptive use, (10) HIV rapid test(7) Keeping girls in school (school attendance)(NA)(NA)(NA)
Chiao et al42FSW(11) HIV testing, (12) consistent condom use(8) HIV perceived control and severity, (9) social support, employer’s supportive attitude, (10) can talk to employer about condomsMeasured(1) HIV testing, employers' supportive attitude; (2) consistent condom use, employer's supportive attitude, can talk to employer about condoms; (3) HIV testing, employer's supportive attitude, HIV perceived control and severity; (4) consistent condom use, employer's supportive attitude, can talk to employer about condoms, HIV perceived control and severityPositive
Cowan et al38FSW(13) Knowledge of HIV status, (14) reported condomless sex with client in past month, (15) HIV positive on treatment(11) Reporting good relationship with other FSWNot measured(NA)(NA)
Fatti et al48Pregnant and postpartum women(16) HIV incidence, (17) HIV testing(12) Receiving support to access social security grantsNot measured(NA)(NA)
Firestone et al19MSM(18) Condom and lubricant use at last sex, (19) consistent condom use in past 30 days, (20) HIV test in past 12 months, (21) seeking treatment for STI past 12 months(13) Friends’ knowing the respondents’ sexual orientation, (14) being out with friends, (15) participating in gay or TG events, (16) ever visited a gay bar/discoNot measured(NA)(NA)
Futterman et al43Pregnant women(22) Adherence to PMTCT practices, (23) HIV knowledge score(17) Emotional functioning, (18) HIV discomfort score, (19) depression scale, (20) COPE scale, (21) interaction and bonding score, (22) disclosing status to partner or family member, (23) social support (availability and satisfaction)Not measured(NA)(NA)
Go et al39MSM(24) HIV Incidence, (25) direct/indirect sharing of needles, injecting drugs, solution and distilled water in past 3 months, (26) frequency of injecting, (27) unprotected sex in past 3 months, (28) HIV knowledge(24) Depression, HIV status disclosure, (25) HIV-related stigma scale, (26) IDU-related stigma scale, (27) social support scale, (28) injecting network sizeNot measured(NA)(NA)
Kerrigan et al46FSW(29) HIV incidence, (30) consistent condom use(29) Experiences of stigma and discrimination, (30) sex work stigma in community, (31) social cohesion, (32) participation in community mobilisation, (33) GBV violence experienceNot measured(NA)(NA)
Mergenova et al40FSW, PWID(31) Biologically confirmed STI and (32) HIV rate, (33) unprotected sexual acts, (34) unsafe injection(34) Condom use self-efficacy, (35) sexual communication skills, (36) savings, (37) perceived stigma, (38) social norms score, (39) social supportNot measured(NA)(NA)
Ramakrishnan et al49FSW(35) HIV prevalence, (36) consistent condom use, (37) treatment for HIV and STIs, (38) knowledge of HIV transmission, (39) sexual behaviourNone(NA)(NA)(NA)
Souverein et al44FSW(40) STI incidence rate, (41) condom useNone(NA)(NA)(NA)
USAID36FSW, MSM, TG(42) HIV testing, (43) no of sex partners, (44) consistent condom use(40) Trust in service/social support networks, (41) recognition of unmet rights, (42) participation in political organisations, HIV association, including peer group socialisation, and governmentmeasured(1) Consistent condom use, participation in PrevenSida or identifying HIV associationPositive
(1) Consistent condom use, peer group socialisationNeutral
Wirtz et al45MSM(45) Condom use at last sex, (46) use of lubricants, (47) casual male partners(43) Disclosure of sexual orientation to family and healthcare providersNot measured(NA)(NA)
  • This analysis excludes studies that do not measure empowerment, inclusion, and agency outcomes and study protocols given their irrelevance.

  • ART, antiretroviral therapy; FSW, female sex workers; GBV, gender-based violence; IDU, injecting drug users; IPV, intimate partner violence; MSM, men who have sex with men; NA, not applicable (direction of relationship is positive, negative or neutral);PMTCT, prevention of mother-to-child transmission; PrEP, pre-exposure prophylaxis; PWID, people who inject drugs; STI, sexually transmitted infection; TG, transgender; USAID, United States Agency for International Development.