Table 3

Risk of bias assessment of randomised controlled studies

Cowan et al33Chiao et al37Mergenova et al35Go et al34Kerrigan et al41
DomainJudgement
Random sequence generation (selection bias)LowLowUnclearLowUnclear
Allocation concealment (selection bias)LowUnclearUnclearLowUnclear
Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)LowUnclearUnclearUnclearLow
Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias) (self-reported outcomes)UnclearLow(N/A)UnclearLow
Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias) (objective measures)LowLow(N/A)LowLow
Incomplete outcome data addressed (attrition bias)LowLowUnclearLowUnclear
Selective reporting (reporting bias)UnclearLowHighLowLow
Other biasUnclearLowHighHighUnclear
  • N/A, not applicable.