Table 2

A summary of evidence of CBT

OutcomesNumber of studies, Number of participants(n) and a summary risk of biasFindings and heterogeneityStrength of evidence
PTSD8 studies; n=1484
Three low risks of bias studies
Pooled SMD=−0.66; 95% CI (−0.87 to −0.44); Q=22.0935; df=8; p=0.0047; I2=63.8%; tau-squared=0.0627Limited
Depression7 studies; n=1162
Three low risks of bias studies
Pooled SMD=−0.69; 95% CI (−0.98 to −0.39); Q=31.585; df=7; p=04.85E-5; I2=77.84%; tau-squared=0.1247Limited
Functional impairment6 studies; n=1337
Two low risks of bias studies
Pooled SMD=−0.57; 95% CI (−0.83 to−0.31); Q=22.322; df=6; p=0.001; I2=73.12%; tau-squared=0.0842Limited
Anxiety4 studies; n=1044
Two low risks of bias studies
Pooled SMD=−0.71; 95% CI (−0.96 to−0.45); Q=14.51; df=4; p=0.0058, I2=72.44%; tau-squared=0.0582Limited
Grief2 studies; n=147
One low risk of bias study
Pooled SMD=−0.23; 95% CI (−0.63 to 0.16); Q=0.227; df=1; p=0.634; I2=0%; tau-squared=0Limited
  • Negative sign of pooled SMD indicates a positive effect of CBT.

  • CBT, cognitive–behavioural therapy; n, number of participants; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder; SMD, standardised mean difference.