Table 4

Primary outcomes

OutcomeIntervention armStandard of care armAdjusted mean difference* (95% CI)Measure of effect (95% CI)Coefficient of variation (k)
Mullen scales (T-scores), mean (95% CI), adjusted mean differencen=257n=249
Early learning composite score88.1 (84.0, 92.2)87.6 (83.1, 92.1)0.06 (−2.68 to 2.80)
p=0.97
0.09
Expressive language Mullen scale44.9 (43.1, 46.7)45.3 (43.3, 47.3)−0.44 (−2.03 to 1.14)
p=0.58
−0.44 (−2.03 to 1.14)
p=0.58
Receptive language Mullen scale45.3 (43.1, 47.5)45.8 (43.1, 48.4)−0.11 (−1.82 to 1.60)
p=0.90
−0.11 (−1.82 to 1.60)
p=0.90
Fine motor Mullen scale41.7 (39.3, 44.2)41.0 (38.5, 43.6)−0.23 (−2.38 to 1.92)
p=0.83
−0.23 (−2.38 to 1.92)
p=0.83
Gross motor Mullen scale50.2 (47.7, 52.6)
n=196
48.2 (45.4, 51.0)
n=201
1.99 (−0.54 to 4.51)
p=0.12
1.99 (−0.54 to 4.51)
p=0.12
Visual reception Mullen scale42.8 (40.1, 45.5)41.5 (38.6, 44.4)0.84 (−1.44 to 3.12)
p=0.47
0.84 (−1.44 to 3.12)
p=0.47
Child retention in HIV care201/257 (78.2%)207/249 (83.1%)OR=0.73 (0.47 to 1.14
p=0.16
Virological failure children as proportion of those HIV positive4/8 (50%)4/6 (67%)
Virological failure mothers33/246 (13.4%)25/239 (10.5%)OR=1.33 (0.72 to 2.46)
p=0.36
  • *Positive mean difference indicates that those in the intervention arm have higher Mullen scores.