Table 3

Descriptive characteristics of participants at baseline by trial arm

Measure and levelIntervention armStandard of care arm
TotalN (% of total)281 (49.0%)293 (51.0%)
Infant’s characteristics
Age (years)Median (IQR)1.04 (0.48–1.49)1.00 (0.68–1.47)
Age (months)0 to <674 (26.3%)44 (15.0%)
6 to <1261 (21.7%)100 (34.1%)
12–24146 (52.0%)149 (50.9%)
SexN (%)
Male141 (50.2%)142 (48.5%)
Female140 (49.8%)151 (51.5%)
HIV status as reported at baselineN (%)
True positive2 (0.7%)3 (1.0%)
False positive7 (2.5%)1 (0.3%)
Unconfirmed positive3 (1.1%)2 (0.7%)
True negative155 (55.2%)184 (62.8%)
False negative6 (2.1%)2 (0.7%)
Unconfirmed negative11 (3.9%)31 (10.6%)
Prefers not to say2 (0.7%)0 (0%)
Unknown95 (33.8%)70 (23.9%)
HIV status as reported at 12 monthsN (%)
True positive5 (1.8%)4 (1.4%)
False positive1 (0.4%)2 (0.7%)
True negative236 (84.0%)231 (78.8%)
False negative5 (1.8%)2 (0.7%)
Unconfirmed negative1 (0.4%)2 (0.7%)
Prefers not to say1 (0.4%)2 (0.7%)
Unknown (negative)9 (3.2%)7 (2.4%)
Lost to follow-up23 (8.2%)43 (14.7%)
HIV status as known at 12 monthsN (%)
Infected10 (3.6%)6 (2.0%)
Exposed uninfected247 (87.9%)242 (82.6%)
Unknown1 (0.4%)2 (0.7%)
Lost to follow-up23 (8.2%)43 (14.7%)
Birth weight (kg)Mean (95% CI)2.99 (2.90 to 3.08) n=2722.93 (2.86 to 3.00) n=283
Weight-for-age z-scoreMean (95% CI)−0.86 (−1.15 to −0.57)−0.86 (−0.99 to −0.72)
Underweight (z-score <–2)Yes44 (15.7%)43 (14.7%)
No237 (84.3%)250 (85.3%)
Length-for-age z-scoreMean (95% CI)−1.56 (−1.87 to −1.25)−1.46 (−1.71 to −1.21)
Stunted (z-score <−2)Yes107 (38.4%)100 (34.3%)
No172 (61.7%)192 (65.8%)
BMI z-score
Low BMI z-scoreYes15 (5.4%)17 (5.8%)
No264 (94.6%)275 (94.2%)
MUAC z-score
Low MUAC z-score <-2Yes14 (6.0%)15 (5.8%)
No218 (94.0%)246 (94.3%)
Mullen scales (T-scores)Mean (95% CI)
Expressive language52.4 (49.7 to 55.1)53.1 (51.3 to 55.0)
Fine motor51.1 (47.9 to 54.4)50.2 (47.4 to 53.0)
Gross motor50.1 (47.7 to 52.6)50.8 (49.2 to 52.4)
Receptive language47.6 (44.5 to 50.8)47.6 (44.8 to 50.4)
Visual reception53.5 (49.3 to 57.8)52.6 (50.2 to 55.1)
Early learning composite score102.6 (96.5 to 108.7)102.0 (97.8 to 106.3)
Caregiver’s characteristic
Caregiver typeN (%)
Mother272 (96.8%)290 (99.0%)
Other9 (3.2%)3 (1.0%)
Age (years)Median (IQR)32 (27–36)32 (27–36)
Marital statusN (%)
Married227 (81.1%)228 (77.8%)
Divorced/separated32 (11.4%)42 (14.3%)
Widowed16 (5.7%)15 (5.1%)
Never married5 (1.8%)8 (2.7%)
EducationN (%)
Secondary or above152 (54.1%)152 (51.9%)
EmploymentN (%)
Employed90 (32.0%)120 (41.0%)
SESN (%)
Lowest104 (37.0%)88 (30.0%)
Middle100 (35.6%)91 (31.1%)
Highest77 (27.4%)114 (38.9%)
Parental stress score (PSI-SF)N (%)
Parental distress subscale n=565Not stressed (<90th percentile)188 (68.4%)192 (66.2%)
Stressed (≥90th percentile)87 (31.6%)98 (33.8%)
Parent-child interaction dysfunction subscale n=565Not stressed (<90th percentile)169 (61.2%)182 (63.0%)
Stressed (≥90th percentile)107 (38.8%)107 (37.0%)
Difficult child subscale n=563Not stressed (<90th percentile)241 (87.3%)240 (83.6%)
Stressed (≥90th percentile)35 (12.7%)47 (16.4%)
PSI-SF total score n=564Not stressed (<90th percentile)180 (65.7%)185 (63.8%)
Stressed (≥90th percentile)94 (34.3%)105 (36.2%)
Mother’s viral load copies/mL n=485Geometric mean (SD)126.2108.0
N (%) failure (≥1000 copies/mL)33/246 (13.4%)25/239 (10.5%)
Maternal mental health (EPDS) n=562N (%)
Not depressed (score 0–11)132 (48.5%)146 (50.3%)
Depressed (score≥12)140 (51.4%)144 (50.0%)
Common mental disorders (SSQ-8) n=573N (%)
No CMD (score 0–5)168 (60.0%)175 (60.0%)
CMD (score 6–8)112 (40.0%)118 (40.0%)
Household food security (HFIAS)N (%)
Little to no hunger116 (41.3%)126 (43.0%)
Moderate-to-severe hunger165 (58.7%)167 (57.0%)
Medical Adherence Rating Scale n=560Not adherent8 (3.0%)5 (1.7%)
Adherent263 (97.1%)284 (98.3%)
  • BMI, body mass index; CMD, Common mental disorders; EPDS, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; HFIAS, Household Food Insecurity Access Scale; MUAC, mid-upper arm circumference; PSI-SF, Parental Stress Index Short Form; SES, socioeconomic status; SSQ-8, 8-item Shona Symptoms Questionnaire.