Table 2

Characteristics of included reviews

ReviewAimDate range of searchNo. of included studies (RCT, n; quasiexperimental, n; other, n)No. of included studies=gender-transformative for men+RCT/quasiexperimentalWHO domain (1–7)*AMSTAR2 summary scoreConclusions
Arias et al53‘To perform a meta-analysis to learn the state-of-the-art of the efficacy of batterer treatment programmes from the 1975 to 2013 by assessing studies measuring treatment efficacy in terms of the recidivism rate’.531975–201319 (6; 13; 0)157Critically lowInconclusive/ mixed
Anderson et al44‘The aim of this paper is to critically examine interventions that have been studied in sub-Saharan Africa to address both HIV and IPV with the purpose of identifying interventions that might be implemented by nurses in Africa and other settings’.442001–201217 (NR; NR; NR)Unclear4, 7Critically lowPositive effect
Arango et al43‘To synthesise and distil that information in order to provide readers with a more unified and thorough understanding of the evidence on various interventions for preventing and reducing VAWG’.432000–201358: 23 systematic reviews, 35 comprehensive reviews (other study designs, 192)Unclear6, 7N/AInconclusive/ mixed
Bacchus et al54‘To identify interventions that have measured outcomes for both IPV and CM and programme components that may have contributed to positive outcomes. Due to the fact that current evidence focuses largely on high-income countries, this paper focuses on interventions in LMIC to build the knowledge base in less developed settings’.542010–20159 (5; 0; 4)37Critically lowPositive effect
Bakrania et al40‘This EGM collates the evidence base for adolescent interventions in LMICs where research is particularly scarce. The thematic scope broadly corresponds with the UNICEF adolescent well-being outcome domains of protection, participation and livelihoods (excluding transferable skills and youth employment-related interventions and outcomes as other EGMs address these). Outcomes relating to the enabling environment for adolescents are also included to capture the contextual influences that might affect the wellbeing of adolescents’.402000–(end date NR)71 impact evaluations, 3 systematic reviews (45; 26; three systematic reviews) Unclear6, 7N/AInconclusive/ mixed
Bourey et al55‘This systematic review aims to synthesise peer-reviewed evidence on the quantitative impact of structural interventions to prevent male-perpetrated IPV against women in LMIC’.552000–201520 (13; 2; 5)156, 7Critically lowPositive effect
Casey et al56‘The overarching purpose of this review is to apply a gender-transformative lens to summarising current literature regarding effective strategies for promoting men’s anti-GBV engagement’.56NR10 (NR; NR; NR)106, 7Critically lowPositive effect
Chatterjee57‘Objective of this review was to systematically review and synthesise the evidence of what could work to prevent child marriages in India’.57NR15 (6; 9; 0)Unclear1, 6, 7Critically lowInconclusive/ mixed
DeGue et al58‘The goal of this review is to identify and summarise the best available evidence on specific sexual violence primary prevention strategies’.581985–2012140 (82; 35; 23)Unclear6, 7Critically lowInconclusive/ mixed
Denison et al59‘What is the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce the prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting compared to no or any other intervention?’59NR9 Publications (6 studies) (NR; NR; NR)47LowInconclusive/ mixed
Dworkin et al24‘We seek to evaluate gender-transformative interventions as they impact four sets of outcomes: HIV/STI outcomes, violence perpetration, sexual risk behavior, and psychosocial markers of gender equity (norms and attitudes)’.24NR15 (3; 5; 7)84, 6, 7Critically lowPositive effect
Ellsberg et al60‘We review evidence for interventions to reduce the prevalence and incidence of violence against women and girls’.60NRUnclear – 22 stated in text but only 14 included in table (9; 5; 0)96, 7Critically lowPositive effect
Feder et al50‘To assess the effects of post-arrest court-mandated interventions (including pre-trial diversion programs) for domestic violence offenders that target, in part or exclusively, batterers with the aim of reducing their future likelihood of re-assaulting above and beyond what would have been expected by routine legal procedures’.501986–200310 (4; 6; 0)10 (batterer intervention movement developed from feminist movement)7Critically lowNo effect
Gibbs et al61‘We focus exclusively on HIV prevention interventions that combined economic empowerment interventions with gender-transformative interventions. The assumption underpinning these interventions is that men and women require a certain level of economic autonomy to enable them to act in more gender equitable ways’.61NR10 (6; 2; 2)34, 6, 7Critically lowInconclusive/ mixed
Haberland62‘To determine what existing evaluations of interventions for young people might suggest (regarding sexuality education programs and their inclusion of content on gender and power)’.621990–201227 (15; 0; 7)91, 4, 6Critically lowPositive effect
Harrison et al63‘To inform the development of an evidence-based, state-of- the-art approach to youth HIV prevention in South Africa, we undertook a review of ongoing or recently completed intervention studies, with the aim of systematically assessing characteristics of rigourously designed youth HIV prevention interventions, to better under- stand how they work, and why’.632000 onwards (end date NR)8 (4; 4; 0)24, 6, 7Critically lowPositive effect
Hartmann et al41‘This review was conducted to inform a larger research priority setting exercise that is being undertaken to identify what research should be prioritised to strengthen the integration of effective gender equality interventions and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies’.411994–201433 (NR; NR; NR)33 reviews included1, 2, 4, 6N/AInconclusive/ mixed
Heise64‘This review focuses on a single form of violence—that which is perpetrated by intimate male partners. Examines the evidence base of a different topic potentially important to the prevention of partner violence’.64NRNR (NR; NR; NR)NR7Critically lowInconclusive/ mixed
Jennings et al65‘We report the results of a comprehensive and systematic review of youth and young adult dating/intimate partner violence as well as reviewing interventions aimed at reducing such violence among individuals ages 15–30’.651981–2015169 (34; 8; 127)8 (two unknown if RCT/quasiexperimental)6, 7Critically lowInconclusive/ mixed
Jewell and Wormith66‘This meta-analysis explored the extent to which various demographic, violence-related, and intrapersonal variables were able to distinguish between treatment completers and dropouts’.661985–201030 (0; 90%; 3)87Critically lowInconclusive/ mixed
Keleher and Franklin67‘To identify the research evidence on programmatic interventions at the level of household and community that have been effective in changing gendered norms’.67NRNR (NR; NR; NR)NR6, 7Critically lowInconclusive/ mixed
Kraft et al48Not explicitly reported: ‘Evidence-based behavior change interventions addressing gender dynamics must be identified and disseminated to improve child health outcomes’.48NR23 (NR; NR; NR)Can't tell – 13 Gender-transformative for men1, 2, 4, 6, 7Critically lowInconclusive/ mixed
Krishnaratne et al42‘In this paper, we review the available evidence for HIV prevention as reflected in systematic reviews of HIV prevention interventions published during the past 20 years’.421995–2015292 (90; NR; 137; additional 65 unaccounted for)NR4, 6N/AInconclusive/ mixed
Lacroix et al68‘To extend previous reviews by including more recent literature, determining the efficacy of couple-based HIV interventions in increasing condom use with both main and concurrent partners, and identifying moderators of intervention efficacy. We also explored commonly identified predictors of behaviour change as identified by past reviews (eg, provision of behavioural skills training) and included couple-specific moderators’.68Up until mid-2012 (not stated in paper – based on supplemental data of when searches were run)22 (NR; NR; NR)NR4Critically lowPositive effect
Lopez et al46‘This project systematically reviewed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effect of theory-based interventions on contraceptive use’.46NR14 (14; 0; 0)11, 4, 6Critically lowInconclusive/ mixed
McCloskey et al69‘In this review, we will include studies which focus on one or several intersecting pathways to perpetration, the impact of IPV, and the efforts to prevent or end it’.691994 onwards (end date NR)7 (4; 3; 1)74, 6, 7Critically lowInconclusive/ mixed
Muralidharan et al70‘1. To assess the extent to which gender-integrated health program in LMICs accommodate or transform gender norms, roles, and relationships; 2. To identify gender-accommodating and gender-transformative strategies in health program in LMICs (as defined in figure 1) 3. To understand how gender-integrated programs impact RMNCH+A, HIV, AIDS, GBV, TB, and UHC outcomes 4. To identify the quantitative and qualitative methods used to evaluate gender-integrated health programs’.70NR145 (25; 57; 64* study numbers reported do not add up)Unclear – only proportions presented in graphs/charts1, 2, 4, 6, 7Critically lowPositive effect
Napierala Mavedzenge et al71‘This updated review will focus on interventions carried out and/or published from January 2005 - December 2008. Since the first Steady, Ready, Go! (SRG) review was carried out, the results of several major randomised controlled trials of adolescent HIV prevention interventions conducted in Africa have been reported’.711990–200840 (23 studies) (11; 12; 0)44, 6Critically lowInconclusive/ mixed
Rankin et al72‘The aim of this EGM is to identify, map and describe existing empirical evidence and gaps in evidence on the effects SRH programming on adolescents in L&MICs. Our broader goal is to identify priorities for new impact evaluation and systematic review research’.721990 onwards (end date NR)166 (101; 65; 0)821, 4, 6, 7Critically lowInconclusive/ mixed
Rees et al73‘This review aimed to summarise the current state of knowledge regarding health sector-based interventions for IPV, their integration into health systems and the perspectives of service users and healthcare workers on IPV care, focusing on the South African context’.73Search conducted 2012–2014 – predetermined date range NRNR (NR; NR; NR)NR6, 7Critically lowInconclusive/ mixed
Remme et al74‘To systematically review evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of effective gender-responsive HIV interventions. In addition, where this has not been done, it seeks to explore the incremental cost and effects of gender-responsive programme components’.741990–201436 (19; 5; 12)44, 6, 7Critically lowInconclusive/ mixed
Ricardo et al75‘To investigate the effectiveness of interventions for preventing boys’ and young men’s use of sexual violence, including: increasing gender equitable attitudes, bystander intentions, and other attitudes and behaviors. It aims to explore the potential for intervening directly with boys and young men in community and school settings to address risk factors for sexual violence within diverse socio-cultural settings’.75NR65 (14; 51; 0)65.* Only moderate and high quality study details reported6, 7Critically lowPositive effect
Sarkar et al47‘This paper systematically reviews the effectiveness of interventions delivering maternal health services to young married women that include antenatal care, delivery care, postnatal care, contraception and safe abortion’.47NR8 (1; 3; 4)11, 4, 6Critically lowPositive effect
Schriver et al76‘The current paper aims to: (1) describe the methodological approaches used to evaluate the impact of gender-integrated programmes on health outcomes in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs); (2) identify and assess patterns in evaluation methods used in such programmes; and (3) provide recommendations for improving future evaluations of gender-integrated programmes in LMICs’.762008–2013 (interventions addressing RMNCH +A, HIV and AIDS, STIs, and GBV); 2000–2013 (interventions on TB, UHC, and health and nutrition of children ages 5 years and under)99 (NR; NR; NR)Not reported as numbers – 42% of gender-transformative studies used experimental design1, 2, 4, 6, 7Critically lowInconclusive/ mixed
Skevington et al77‘We report the first independent quantitative SR of evidence on the effectiveness of the Stepping Stones intervention’.771999–20108 (8; 0; 0)74, 6Critically lowPositive effect
Small et al45‘To describe the range of interventions that incorporate gender-based content as a component of HIV and HIV risk interventions; to assess the methodological rigor of the evidence supporting these interventions and to assess the effectiveness of these interventions in reducing HIV-related risk behaviors and in reducing gender based violence’.451990–201211 studies (eight distinct interventions) (7; 2; 2)34, 6Critically lowPositive effect
Smedslund et al78‘To assess if cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) reduces violence from men who are physically violent towards their female partners’.78inception-201012 (six individual trials)(12; 0; 0)127HighInconclusive/ mixed
Storer et al79‘Review question: 1. What are the goals, intervention components, and target audiences of bystander programs to prevent dating abuse and sexual violence? 2. What are the stated outcomes of evaluated bystander programs and what is the evidence of program efficacy at achieving these outcomes?’79NR16 (1; 1; 14)26, 7Critically lowPositive effect
Tokhi et al49‘What interventions used to increase male involvement have been effective in increasing care-seeking behaviour during pregnancy, for childbirth and after birth for women and newborns and in improving key maternal and newborn health outcomes?’492000–201213 (3; 4; 6)72Critically lowInconclusive/ mixed
  • *WHO domain (1–7): 1. Helping people realise their desired family size; 2. Ensuring the health of pregnant women and girls and their new-born infants; 3. Preventing unsafe abortion; 4. Promoting sexual health and well-being; 5. Promoting sexual and reproductive health in disease outbreaks; 6. Promoting healthy adolescence for a healthy future and unsafe abortion; harmful traditional practices, child, early and forced marriage; and sexual coercion and intimate partner violence; 7. Preventing and responding to violence against women and girls and harmful practices.

  • RCT, randomised controlled trial.