Table 3

Difference-in-differences estimates of heterogeneous treatment impact of benefits expansion in insurance coverage for Green Card on annualised out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures (in Turkish Lira)

OutcomeBy household geographic location
RuralUrban
Doctor visit1.020 (9.420)−14.064** (7.032)
Dentist6.660 (6.372)−20.316*** (5.868)
Diagnostic−5.448 (4.800)−7.932 (8.004)
Household pharmaceutical medical spending−24.528*** (10.224)−1.428 (9.624)
Household total medical expenditures−46.716** (27.024)−70.056*** (22.608)
Compare declines above with:
Mean total household medical spending192.732205.884
Total decline as per cent of total per-household medical spending2434
X variablesYesYes
Observations18 67332 752
  • Authors’ analysis of Turkey Household Budget Surveys: 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006. Robust SEs are in parenthesis. *10%, **5%, ***1% in a one-tail t-test. See the notes in table 1.